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Archives 2020

When I got COVID-19

By

Dr. Zahid Iqbal

zahidis786@gmail.com

Photo- fernando zhiminaicela pixabay

On that day, I was feeling tired during my duty. Though I didn’t have high grade-fever instead, I had strange kinds of feelings and frustration without any obvious reason.

“Go home and sleep, something continuously insisting me?”

COVID-19 was on peak. Being a medical doctor, l didn’t quit my job during the lockdown in my town. I used all protective measures against COVID-19 during my job as well as moving outside the home.

After duty when I was driving back home, again I had uncomfortable emotions which I wasn’t able to understand.

In the dim road and moonlight, it seems that that something flying in front of the car. I knew that there was nothing but my confused mind. Hopelessness was prevailing all around me.

As it was hot summer so car A/C was on. After about 10 minutes drive, I began to shiver.

I slowed down and stop, turned off A/C but still, I was shivering.

Once I thought to take help from highway police but changed my mind in the next moment as my home was now just a mile away.

I took rest for a while, drank water, and drove again.

I had to take the exit a few meters from where I stopped. When I moved on and took the exit, I had a narrow escape because I was about to hit the road’s sidewall.

I realized that my reflexes were slow and I took a longer turn.

I was traveling on that road daily for about 3 years and was very familiar with that road.

What’s wrong with me? I asked myself!

But I had no clear answer.

Thank God I reached home safely

On the very next day, I was tested positive for COVID-19. I was upset when I received the test result. I made a mistake somewhere that’s why the coronavirus was able to enter my body.

As COVID-19 was on peak, so everyone was afraid of catching the Coronavirus. But at the same time, most people were also in denial.

I was also mentally prepared as I was among those who were on the front line.

So chances were always there. The other family members were tested negative for COVID-19. This gave me a big relief.

After diagnosis, I quarantined myself at home.

Sorrow was high for many reasons, most importantly, I prevented my little sweet daughter to hug and kiss me which she usually does on my arrival at home.

That night I took a very light dinner and went to bed but sleep was far away.

After a while, I began to feel nausea and a few minutes later, diarrhea started.

I was very upset and felt lonely. My mind wasn’t with me.

I had a strange feeling which I still couldn’t explain here. I was somewhere between earth and sky….not alive or dead.

In the morning I could hear my kids but wasn’t able to meet them.

Tears were in my eyes after a long time in my life.

I had breakfast with little taste and smell. Diarrhea was bothering me very much.

Surprisingly I didn’t have severe respiratory symptoms except for a moderate cough. However, I had a fever throughout my ailment.

My family was very supportive in that situation. I tried very best to remain positive and calm. That was very essential and I used to advise my patients, but now I was a patient.

Every night was fearful. I was afraid of sleeping because of nightmares, loneliness bothersome diarrhea, cough, and fever.

I took the supportive treatment as there was no proper treatment, so I have to encourage myself.

“Nothing will happen bad to me and will get well soon”

These were the words that I always uttered.

Sometimes I asked myself,

“Am I in denial?

But the next moment I thought positively because I had seen many patients recovered from COVID-19.

As I mentioned that it was summer, so I had to keep changing the air conditioner to a comfortable temperature at night.

Generally, most of the time, I felt cold and had to use a blanket even at a temperature of 40 °C. Some time blanket seemed to be not enough.

I always remained in disturbed sleep. My days were slightly better as I had some activities but nights were horrible. I tried sleeping pills occasionally but failed. Some bizarre images and voices were disturbing me during sleep.

The continuous disturbance in sleep made me more tired and ill.

During partial sleep, the faces of my young kids encouraged me to beat the disease as they were saying.

“We can’t live without you, daddy. You have to live with us. Beat it. We want to play with you.”

That horrifying condition remained for a week or so, but I was determined to fight with disease and also wanted to defeat it anyhow.

Afterward, every next day was better, things began to improve and fever began to subside.

After two and a half weeks, my symptoms subsided. I was feeling much better except weaknesses.

After a few more days, when I was declared “clear” and I met with the family with care. That was an amazing day. It looked that I was born aging. That was true as I got a new life again.

I was able to hug my sweet daughter, play with my children, and live with my wife.

Sometimes when I remember those days, it looks like a dream or a horror film scene.

Again I’m on my duty and joined my happy family and living a normal life.

I wish from the bottom of my heart that nobody will have COVID-19, as he/she has to remain away from their loved one and has to face the medical consequences of the disease.

I also request everyone to follow SOPs for COVID-19 while doing your daily activities along with ALL preventive measures and always remember;

Wear a mask

Clean hands frequently

Keep a safe distance

HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

fancycrave1

Since your childhood, you must have heard a saying that

“Health is wealth”

Do you agree? I think you will be agreed! Good health is an aspiration for everyone. Each of us wants to live in a broad health horizon where he/she can fly like a free happy bird and can see a beautiful happy world with a birds-eye view.

To live happy and healthy you must have to do and not do something. However, to be remaining consistent with activities which can improve your health like exercise is a bit difficult but not impossible. No doubt the uncertainty of your daily life hinders your task but once you overcome them, then nobody can stop you from being healthy and well-being.              

Your task should be to promote healthy behavior and self-management of lifestyle. In this, we’ll discuss some important issues which are very important for your well-being. By changing your lifestyle, many diseases are preventable, which otherwise cause a lot of negative consequences.

There are a lot of optimal and foremost treatment options for non-communicable diseases that are related to lifestyle, but we don’t pay much attention to them, and thus they become chronic. Plants-oriented diet, physical and emotional well-being, and avoidance of hazardous substances are some interventions to prevent or even reverse some deadly diseases. You have to do the following few things to live healthily.

#1 Do Physical activities

Mabel Amber

The lack of physical activities can result in obesity, heart diseases, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and many other diseases. (1)

Due to your job or studies, it becomes difficult to take time for your physical activities, but 40-50 minutes is still not impossible even if you have a busy schedule. Physical activities may include but are not limited to walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, dancing, hiking playing games, etc. There is evidence that even 30 minutes of moderate exercise has beneficial health effects. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 150-300 minutes /week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activities for the aged 18-64. (2)

So you must spare a few minutes from your busy life for your health. Exercise makes you physically and psychologically fit. It increases your endurance and makes almost all your body functions perfect.

#2 Review your eating habits

Jasmine Lin

One of the reasons for the increase in diseases is a poor or unhealthy diet. There is an imbalance of food intake in various parts of the world. In western countries, there is a trend of consuming more meat, sugar beverage, and dairy products whereas in underdeveloped there is inadequate food. Your diet must be a combination of products which makes your body and needed for proper functions. You should take healthy fat (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated), protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals. You don’t need to take extra pills of vitamins or minerals if you’re eating well.

Your diet should base more on plant sources rather than animal sources. As for a healthy diet is concerned, there is a long list of healthy foods but in general, eat more vegetables, fruits, whole grain, low or fat-free milk, lean meat, fish, poultry, beans, nuts, etc. You should also remain within your calorie requirements, which have great importance. (3)

#3 Sleep well

Good sleep is very important for our health. It is not only good for our physical but also for mental and psychological health. Good sleep helps us to recover from physical and mental exertion. (4)

Ivan Oboleninov

So for a healthy life, sleep is very important. Good sleep improves the performance of our various body systems. For example, it makes your heart healthy, makes the immune system better, reduces stress, decreases inflammation, helps in the improvement of memory, reduces stress, or even decreases the chances of cancer.

If you have lack of sleep, you should follow the following techniques;

  1. Make a strict sleeping timetable: this means that you should go to sleep and wake up at a fixed time, you are out of town or are on holiday.
  2. Do some exercise: if you don’t have proper sleep before sleep, do some exercise before sleep. This may help to achieve sleep when you are on your bed.
  3. Avoid bright light and electronic devices. Your cell phone should also be silent.
  4. Use a comfortable pillow and mattress.
  5. Your bedroom should be also comfortable. Your bedroom should be away from a noisy environment, like it should be away from the roadside. Use dim light in your room. The temperature of the bedroom should be comfortable for you.
  6. Avoid stress and anxiety at bedtime. Do some relaxing techniques like yoga or read a book.
  7.  Don’t sleep on daytime if you have lack of sleep at bedtime.
  8. Don’t take coffee, tea, or drinks having caffeine.
  9. Avoid alcohol or heavy dinner.
  10.  You can also take a shower before sleep which may induce sleep.
  11. If you have a long sleeping problem, then should contact your healthcare provider.

#4 Avoid stress

Stress may have bad effects on your physical health, psychological health, and on your behavior so stress is not good for your health. (5)

Inzmam Khan 

Stress produces a lot of changes in the body. It produces harmful stress hormones (fight -or- flight), disturbs the immune system, consumes more energy. The long-standing stress may cause a long list of diseases.

Management of stress

  • Do exercises on a regular basis.
  • Do relax techniques like massage, yoga, deep breathing
  • Read some interesting books
  • Don’t live alone
  • Listen to music
  • Visit your friends
  • Avoid excessive use of devices like cell phone, TV
  • Have some time for spiritual activities

#5 Take adequate water

congerdesign 

Water is an integral part of your body. Drinking adequate water every day is very important to your health. (6)

The adult human body consists of approximately 60% of water, this indicates how important water is. Water is used in all parts of your body to maintain its functions. It is necessary to eliminate waste products from your body, maintain your body temperature, and your skin intact and beautiful.

Water is lost in various ways like urine, respiration, and sweating, so you must replenish water to maintain good health. Now the question is how much water is needed every day. There are many factors that determine how much water you should take. The factors which determine water intake are ;

  • Temperature
  • Physical activities
  • Body size
  • Pregnancy and lactation in women
  • Health issues like diarrhea vomiting etc

On average an adult man should take 3.7 liters (about 15.5 cups) and a woman about 2.7(11.5 cups) of water daily. (7) 

To bear in mind, remember a famous saying,

“Take 8 glasses of water every day”

Again, keep in mind that water intake depends on many environmental and individual health conditions.

#6 Quit smoking

Aphiwat chuangchoem

Smoking which is preventable is a major cause of death in the United States and also all around the globe. (8)

On every cigarette pack, you may have seen a warning that;

“Smoking is injurious to health”

So smoking must be avoided if you want to live longer.

Everyone knows that smoking is just suicide. So knowing the facts and ignoring the warning, has no justification. Smoking can damage almost all systems of the body and some of them include (9);

  • Lungs: your lungs are very much affected by tobacco smoke, ranging from mild to very dangerous diseases like emphysema, pneumonia, and lung cancer.
  • Heart & circulation: smoking may damage your heart and circulation, resulting in heart attack and many related diseases.
  • Mouth and throat: smoking can cause mouth lips, tongue, and throat cancers
  • Stomach: you may have an increased likelihood of ulcers and stomach cancers
  • Skin: some toxins are produced due to smoking, which can damage and change the color of your skin.
  • Kidneys: kidney and bladder problem may arise
  • Bones diseases
  • Reproduction & sexual problems

#7 Cut back Alcohol

Alcohol is also should be limited or completely avoided if possible. Alcohol is a toxic and psychoactive substance with dependence-producing properties. (11)

Excessive or chronic use of alcohol may result in many diseases, some of which are fatal. Alcohol may cause liver failure and cancer, digestive problems, breast cancer, colon cancer, mouth cancer, heart diseases, psychological problems, stroke, social problems, addiction, and numerous health issues. So for a healthy life, you must avoid Alcohol.

Act now

So what are you waiting for? Set your goal, spare time for yourself, and start your activities now.

Kegel exercises

Kegel Exercises & Women Health

Kegel Exercises

Introduction

Kegel exercise or pelvic floor exercise gives strength to your pelvic muscles. It consists of alternative contraction and relaxation of pelvic floor muscles. The pelvic acts as a muscles support for pelvic organs like the uterus and vagina in females, small intestine, bladder, and rectum. The weakening of pelvic muscles may result in many problems such as urinary stress incontinence and prolapse of the uterus, vagina, intestine, and rectum. It can also decrease sexual sensation.

In 1948, Arnold Kegel, an American gynecologist, invented these exercises.

Kegel exercises can be performed for a few minutes, several times a day, by repeatedly contracting and relaxation of pelvic floor muscles.

How to recognize pelvic muscles

Before starting this exercise, you must know the pelvic floor muscles, otherwise, you’ll not get a good result.

You can recognize them easily in the following ways.

1- Suppose you are in a car and there is a need to pass out urine, but you are a few minutes away from the bathroom. At this time you attempt to prevent urine by contracting some muscles which are pelvic floor muscles.

2- Similarly, when you prevent passing out gas, then you also contract the same muscles.

3- You can also become familiar with these muscles by placing your finger into the vagina or anus and try to press your finger, again you’ll use pelvic floor muscle to do this.

4- When you are urinating and stop the urine in midway, again you contract pelvic floor muscle. But remember, should not do this because it’ll harm you instead of giving benefits.

5- These are the same muscles that contract when you get your orgasm.

Why pelvic muscles become weak.

Many factors weaken pelvic muscles and some of them include;

  1. Obesity
  2. Pregnancy
  3. Childbirth
  4. Surgical procedures
  5. Prolonged constipation
  6. Chronic cough
  7. Advanced age

Health benefits of Kegel exercise

There are many benefits of Kegel exercise, some of them already mentioned above. Let summarize them again here.

These exercises aim is to give strength to the pelvic floor.  There are many beneficial effects of these exercises as mentioned below;

Incontinence prevention

Pelvic floor exercise may help to control urine and fecal incontinence due to the weakening of the pelvic floor and thus solving your problems. But if you have severe incontinence, then you must consult your doctor or healthcare providers.

Prolapse prevention

Making a stronger pelvic floor may help to prevent prolapse of the various organs like the uterus, vagina, rectum, urinary bladder, etc.

Facilitate pregnancy

The Kegel exercise is prescribed in pregnancy to strengthen the pelvic floor when it has to bear the stress in the later stages of pregnancy and during childbirth. Such exercises make delivery easier. Kegel is also recommended after delivery to strengthen pelvic floor muscles and vagina, which suffer physical stress during the process of delivery.

Sexual enhancement

These exercises may tighten your vagina. They increase pleasure in your sexual activity by increasing blood flow and sensation to the vagina and make it relax during sexual intercourse. It may also allow the female to complete pompoir (a kind of sexual activity). During orgasm, these are the muscle that contract and if they are stronger, they give better pleasure.

When to perform Kegel exercise

You are free in this regard. Whenever you have time, you can go for it. You can do it any time during the day while watching TV, sitting in your garden, relaxing on a chair, or lying on your bed.

How to do Kegel exercises

You can do it by sitting or lying position. It is better to perform lying down on the floor on your back. You can also do turning to the right or left while lying down. Once you become an expert, you can do it at any position and increase contraction time.

Remember “squeeze and relax” and “5”.

Before exercise, empty your bladder. Lay down on the floor, pay attention to your pelvic muscle. Breathe deeply and relax while doing exercise. Squeeze pelvic muscles for 5 seconds and then relax for 5-10 seconds. However, you can take berating during squeezing if required. Then repeat the procedure. In this way, you can do 10 sets in a row, 4-5 times a day at different times. Please do not contract your abdominal, hip, or thigh muscles while doing Kegel exercise. You’ll get good results in a few weeks or a month.

The Best position for doing Kegel

There are no fixed positions to do such exercise but remember that your body should be in a comfortable position.

The best positions for exercise are;

1- SITTING STRAIGHT ON A CHAIR OR EXERCISE BALL

Gustavo Fring

This is quite an easy exercise. Sit on a chair or exercise ball with feet on the ground. Inhale deeply and contract your pelvic muscles. Hold the contraction for few seconds then exhale and relax the pelvis.

2-LYING STRAIGHT ON BACK WITH BENDING LEGS AND LIFTING PELVIS(BRIDGE POSITION)

Lay on your back with your knee bent upward. Your fingertips should be near to your heels. Relax your muscles completely and breathe out. Inhale deeply and left your hip making bridge and contract pelvis muscles and exhale. Remain in contracting for few seconds and then relax the pelvic muscle. Afterward, slowly lower down your hip to the floor. In this way, repeat it 5-10 times

3- CAT-BACK STRETCH

Put your hands and knees on the floor under your shoulders. take a deep breath and take a pose of Cat by pushing your pelvis forward and bending the spine and then exhale and relax your muscles. repeat the process for 10 times.

4-COBRA ABDOMINAL STRETCH

Lie down prone on the mat. Stretch the legs back with the tops of the facing floor. Hold your hands on the floor under your shoulders. Drawback the elbows towards your body.

Firmly press your feet, thighs, and pubis towards the floor

Take a deep breath and begin strengthening your arms to lift the chest until you reach a height where you can still maintain the connection with the floor with your pubis as well as with your legs. In this position draw tailbone toward pubis making shore not to tighten hip.

Compressed the shoulder blades against the back, moving the side ribs frontward. Raise your chest by the top of your sternum avoiding pushing the front ribs forward. Maintain the backbend equally.

Keep this posture for 15-20 seconds, keep breathing evenly. With the exhalation, let go your back to the floor.

5-CLAMSHELLS

The clamshells not only make your pelvic stronger but also strengthen thigh, hips, and glutes muscles.

To start, lay on your side with your head laid on your base arm and your top arm’s hand on the floor to adjust. Your knees ought to be twisted at 45 degrees. Then, connect with your abs and press your pelvic floor up and in towards your spine. As you keep your feet together, separate your knees and open your top knee like a clamshell. Once at the top, hold for a couple of moments and afterward on your breathe out, gradually return to the beginning position.

6-GLUTE BRIDGE

Lie down on the floor with face up with bending knees with arms along the body and feet flat. By squeezing your glutes and hamstrings, lift hips from the floor by keeping the pelvic floor fit into place as your hips rise. Then Lower down the hips and repeat about 10 times.

7-KNEE HUG

Lie down on your back on the floor. bend your knees in such a way that as they are going to touch your chest. Pull your right knee towards your chest,  making sure that your head and shoulders are relaxed on the mat.

wrap up your both hands around the knee and try to hug it towards your chest.

Keep it here for 30 – 60 seconds.

Relax and move back to the floor r and repeat the same procedure with the left knee.

Then bend both knees upward and put y your both arms around them.

Again, try to Hug your knees in towards your chest.

Keep this stretching for 30 – 60 seconds.

Move your legs down to the floor and relax.

8- MARCH

9- MINI SQUAT

10-PLANK JACKS

1- BOW POSE

Note: Kegel exercises are quite safe, but if you feel pain during contractions, then consult your health care provider.

The author wishes you for your better health.

MEDICAL EDUCATION

1-What is medical education?

It is aimed toward doctors of all levels and other healthcare workers who have a teaching role in all medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, physiotherapy, midwifery and plenty of many other health professionals seeking to develop their knowledge and skills with in the theory and practice of teaching and learning. It may also be of interest to others who wish to develop their knowledge of education and training issues within the context of medicine and healthcare e.g. healthcare managers and educational developers.

Any program in medical education should have a clear emphasis on the development of medical educator and educational leadership skills and affords opportunities to explore inter-professional, inter-disciplinary and disciplinary specific aspects of education and training.
The education and training in medicine, health and social care have undergone significant reform in the past decade, creating new challenges and opportunities for those with educational roles and responsibilities

Learning outcomes of medical educators

All the following learning should be outcomes;

Knowledge and theory:

  • Critically explore theories and strategies of learning, teaching and assessment relevant to their practice
  • Examine their own personal philosophy of learning
  • Critically analyze their professional interaction on a one-to-one, small and large group basis
  • Be critically aware of developments nationally and internationally in medical education and the implications of these developments for course design

Intellectual skills:

  • Demonstrate their evolving philosophy of communication in medical education
  • Explore the similarities and differences between patient and learner centred values and practice
  • Identify their own needs for further development as medical educators

Professional/practical skills:

  • Critically assess their interpersonal skills in their practice
  • Demonstrate appropriate skills of facilitating learning and supporting an effective learning environment
  • Critically reflect on their facilitative styles
  • Develop self awareness and self evaluation in their professional and educational roles

2-What is the purpose, aims and objective of medical education?

It aims to prepare students for a role in undergraduate and postgraduate clinical and healthcare education as teacher and trainer, according to the best clinical and educational standards.

To achieve this, students may study the basic sciences to education, behavior and clinical entity.

They should also acquire an understanding of the theoretical basis of learning and teaching and the practical application of these skills.

They should also gain knowledge and practical application of the technology required for efficient and innovative teaching.

Students should be assisted in the gaining familiarity by the practical design and development of teaching and inquest techniques during studies.

The Overall aims

  • recognize and foster a learner-centered approach
  • relate this to the requirements of medical education for clinical competence
  • develop practical, generic skills in teaching and assessment by understanding of educational theory
  • endorse rational practice in education and clinical practice, using a work-based reflective journal and teaching observation
  • promote evidence-based education
  • achieve recognized accreditation
  • Gain an overview of the importance of communication in professional practice and medical education
  • look at the philosophy and values of patient/learner centered education and practice
  • assist medical education bridging the boundaries between undergraduate and postgraduate provision, primary and secondary care, and health professionals
  • make possible of learning in both academic and practice settings
  • uphold the development of pertinent communication skills
  • build up and augment teaching skills

3- The contents of the Medical Education.

The medical education may have following modules

Curriculum development

This may include:

  • introduction to curriculum and course blueprint
  • course outline, core curriculum, electives and selection
  • outcome-based education
  • preference and ideology of curriculum development
  • Approaches to curriculum development
  • aspire, objectives and competencies
  • Problem-based learning
  • Community based medical education
  • incorporated teaching
  • Educational milieu
  • Multi specialized education
  • Quality assurance

Teaching and Learning

In this candidate should gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an successful and approachable medical teacher and also the research, theory and practice of teaching and learning.

Teaching and learning may consists of a combination of presentations, activities and structured discussions using active learning methods and participants should be expected to illustrate  their own knowledge, skills and experiences of teaching and to reflect critically on their underlying postulations. The teaching and learning should include the following;

  • Lectures
  • entire group discussions
  • Small group discussions
  • Videos
  • Problem based, outcome orientated process of feedback
  • performer and task
  • Observation of others teaching
  • presentation
  • Seminars
  • Peer review instructions
  • Development of Portfolio

Learning and Assessment

It should consist of introduction to examination impression, principle and approaches to assessment and measurement of skilled performance.

It examines in the background of research, practical knowledge, thoughtful practice, organizational culture and current professional assessment policy, and the interaction between all these. This also includes organizational and individual requirements and constructing quality improvement methods. This may include;

  • styles in assessment
  • ideology of assessment
  • Assessment techniques
  • Own assessment in the teaching process
  • skilled assessment
  • Assessing approach
  • feedback

long-term Personal and Professional improvement

It gives an introduction to and assessment of concepts, purposes, and approaches and look into in the context of research on personal practical knowledge, reflective practice, organizational culture and educational policy. This also include discussion between individual and organizational development, professional liability and teaching excellence

This study the interpersonal skills and understanding required by those involved in healthcare education both as learners and contributors.

Information technology in  Education

There is need to use of information and latest digital technology methods in medical education in teaching and research data assessment. Video conferencing, telemedicine and simulation may be used as tools in medical education.

Problem Based Learning in Medical education

In this, students explore the theory, practice and development of problem based learning. They l learn how to design and run problem based learning sessions related to the health sciences. This includes observation of actual sessions and they also undertake facilitation of sessions themselves which is appraised.

There may be a relevant review of the scientific literature supporting the concept of problem based learning and a review of the research into its efficacy.

Teaching practical clinical skills and usingclinical simulators.

This module builds on the theory and practice of skills teaching and training introduced in the core module, Teaching and Learning.

The Participants should learn the theories underlying skills teaching plus additional frameworks used in elective situations such as physical examinations, surgery and investigational procedures,   practice and evaluate a variety of skill teaching and testing techniques and learn how to deliver simulation training by designing, running and evaluating a simulation scenario.

Action enquiry

This module deals with the issues surrounding the planning of an enquiry, carrying it out and producing an account of the experience.

The purpose is to prepare students to undertake practical investigations which will enable them to enhance research skills and to work as critical investigators in their own work place. The nature of quantitative and qualitative research at a

Philosophical level is looked at.

By the end of the module student have a greatly enhanced understanding of the strength and weakness of research based on each methodology -very useful in this era of evidence based care.

Dissertation/project and research

The medical education project module provides the opportunity to develop interests and expertise in a chosen area of medical education research, development or leadership.

It enables students to: identify an area of research/development/leadership interest that merits research/development activity; plan, design, manage and evaluate a small scale project and demonstrate innovation in medical education and /or leadership. Research may have;*

  • Research awareness
  • Approaches to research
  • Sampling
  • Designing and administering questionnaires
  • Interpretation and presentation of data

4-Who can take medical education?

Participants may include:

  • junior teachers wishing to improve their skills;
  • senior teachers keeping up-to-date;
  • clinical tutors, trainers or course organizers responsible for arranging programs for their own participants;
  • staff serving on curriculum or course committees, curriculum facilitators and administrators;
  • individuals given new teaching responsibilities;
  • All those who are interested in improving the practice of medical education.

SESAME

Sesame, a health healer

While enjoying a yummy hamburger in a Fast-food restaurant, you may have noticed tiny sprinkled off-white or light brown seeds on the top of the buns, giving a marvelous look to it. These might be sesame seeds, which give a nice look to your hamburger and a good nutty taste as well. Sesame is used on different food cuisines and bakery products like bread, burger buns, crackers, and many other sweets.

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HISTORY       

The plant’s name is Sesamum indicium. The word sesame is derived from the Latin word “sesamum” and the Greek word “sesamon”.

CULTIVATION

Sesame is a tropical flowering plant that is found all over the tropical regions of the world, but mainly in the African and Indian subcontinent. It contains many small edible seeds rich in oil and contains many nutrients. It is also cultivated for the production of oil in many parts of the world.

One very important feature of the sesame is that it can grow in unfavorable environmental conditions where other crops are difficult to grow and hence called survivor crops. It is said that this is the oldest oilseed crop.

The height of sesame is 1.5 to 3.5 with white tubular flowers but in some sesame purple, pink or blue flowers are also seen. The color of the seeds is mostly off-white, but other colors like brown, gold, gray, and black are also present depending on the types of the plants.

Nutritional value

Source =United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

100 grams of whole dried sesame seed contains the following important nutritional ingredients;

Total energy

Energy = 573 kcal

Protein and Amino Acids

Protein = 17.73 g

Glutamic acid = 3.995 g

Leucine = 1.358 g

Isoleucine = 0.763 g

Lysine = 0.569 g

Threonine = 0.736 g

Tryptophan = 0.388 g

Aspartic acid = 1.646 g

Glycine = 1.215 g

Alanine = 0.927 g

Valine = 0.99 g

Tyrosine = 0.743 g

Pheyl alanine = 0.94 g

Cystein = 0.358 g

Methionine = 0.586 g

Histadine =  0.522 g

Arginine = 2.63 g

Serine = 0.967 g

Proline = 0.81 g

Fats and fatty acids

Total fat = 49.65 g

Polyunsaturated fatty acids = 21.773 g

Monounsaturated fatty acid = 18.759 g

Saturated fattyacid = 6,957

Cholesterol = 0 mg

Minerals

Calcium, Ca= 975 mg

Iron, Fe= 14.55 mg

Magnesium = 351 m g

Phosphorus, P = 629 mg

Potassium K = 468 mg

Sodium = 11 mg

Zinc, Zn = 7.75 mg

Copper, cu = 4.082 mg

Selenium, Se = 34.4 μg

 Vitamins

Thiamin,B1 = 0.791 mg

Riboflavin,B2 = 0.247 mg

Niacin,B3 = 4.515 mg

Pyridoxine ,B-6 =0.79 mg

Folate = 97 μg

 β-Carotene = 5 μg

Vitamin  A = 9 IU

Vitamin E = 0.25 mg

Others

Choline = 25.6 mg

Total dietary Fiber = 11.18 g
Total sugar = 0.3 g   

Phenolics = 129.7 to 355.3 mg .

Lignans = 224-1148 mg

HEALTH BENEFITS

Sesame contains many vitamins and minerals which play a vital role to maintain our health.

1-Bone health and Arthritis

Sesame is a good source of calcium from a plant source. 100 grams of sesame dried seed contain about 970 mg of calcium. As we know that calcium is important for bone health, so these tiny unhulled seeds are good for your bones.

Moreover, osteoarthritis is a common disease in the older age group that can damage joints of the body due to the inflammatory process. As seeds have anti-inflammatory properties, so they may help in joint pain.1

2-Fibers

100 grams of sesame contain 16.9 gms of fiber.2

Dietary fibers may help to protect you from various like hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke and certain gastrointestinal diseases.3

3-Blood pressure

Sesame contains many nutrients which may have beneficial effects on your blood pressure. For instant poly-unsaturated fat, phytosterol, lignans, magnesium, vitamin E are such contents which are helpful in regulating your blood pressure.4

4-Anit Oxidant and ant-aging

Free-radicals are produced in the body which can destroy your body cells and are linked to the aging process. Beta-carotene phenolic and lignan of sesame may reduce free radical production and thus have anti oxidant properties.5

 5-Lower Cholesterol

As sesame have monosaturated fatty acid, fibers and Liganan which have lipid lowering properties.6, 7

So by lowering lipids, sesame protects you from bad lipids, which in turn may protect you from other diseases like coronary heart diseases.

6-Source of protein 

Sesame contains some essential amino acids like cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine.8

Amino acids are the building blocks of protein synthesis. In this way sesame can provide some amino acid but for other amino acids, you must take animal source of protein.                                                           

7-Boost immunity  

Sesame is a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin E, Cooper, iron, zinc, and selenium. These all help to build immunity. In this way, sesame boosts your immunity and helps to fight against various diseases.9

8-Good for skin and hair all help

Zinc, Selenium, Iron ad vitamin A, B, E are helpful in the healthy growth of the hair.10

9- Improve vision

The beta-carotene and vitamin A are essential for vision.11

10- Good for postmenopausal women

The Lignan present in sesame is converted into Enterolactone by a gut microorganism, which has estrogenic activity. Thus, sesame help to reduce various symptoms in women after menopause.12, 13

References

1-Effects of sesame seed supplementation on inflammatory factors and oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Khadem Haghighian M1, Alipoor B2, Malek Mahdavi A3, Eftekhar Sadat B4, Asghari Jafarabadi M5, Moghaddam A6.

2- U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research ServiceNutr Rev. 2009 Apr;67(4):188-205. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00189.x.

3-Health benefits of dietary fiber.

Anderson JW1, Baird PDavis RH JrFerreri SKnudtson MKoraym AWaters VWilliams CL.

4-. “Can sesame consumption improve blood pressure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 97 (10): 3087–3094

. Khosravi-Boroujeni H, Nikbakht E, Natanelov E, Khalesi S

5-” Effects of the Intake of Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) and Derivatives on Oxidative Stress: A Systematic Review”. Journal of Medicinal Food. 19 (4): 337–345. Gouveia Lde A, Cardoso CA, de Oliveira GM, Rosa G, Moreira AS (2016).

6- Br J Nutr. 2016 Mar 14;115(5):764-73. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515005012. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

Sesame fractions and lipid profiles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials.

Khalesi S1, Paukste E1, Nikbakht E2, Khosravi-Boroujeni H1.

7- The effect of dietary intake of sesame (Sesamumindicum L.) derivatives related to the lipid profile and blood pressure: A systematic review.

Cardoso CA1, Oliveira GMM1, Gouveia LAV2, Moreira ASB3, Rosa G4.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Jan 2;58(1):116-125. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2015.1137858. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

8- Effect of processing on some minerals, anti-nutrients and nutritional composition of sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed meals Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10(1):1858-1864 

9-Sesame seeds essential oil and Sesamol modulate the pro-inflammatory function of macrophages and dendritic cells and promote Th2 response.

Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran 32:98-98DOI: 10.14196/mjiri.32.98

10- The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in Hair Loss: A Review

Hind M. Almohanna, 1 Azhar A. Ahmed,2 John P. Tsatalis,3 and Antonella Tosti3Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2019 Mar; 9(1): 51–70. 2018 Dec13. doi: 10.1007/s13555-018-0278-6.

11-β-Carotene Is an Important Vitamin A Source for Humans1,2,3

Tilman Grune,4 Georg Lietz,6 Andreu Palou,7 A. Catharine Ross,8 Wilhelm Stahl,9 Guangweng Tang,10 David Thurnham,11 Shi-an Yin,5 and Hans K. Biesalski4,*

12- Sesame Ingestion Affects Sex Hormones, Antioxidant Status, and Blood Lipids in Postmenopausal Women 

Wen-Huey WuYu-Ping KangNai-Hung WangHei-Jen JouTzong-An Wang

The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 136, Issue 5, May 2006, Pages 1270–1275, https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.5.1270

13- The pros and cons of plant estrogens for menopause.

Bedell S1, Nachtigall MNaftolin F.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Jan;139:225-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.12.004. Epub 2012 Dec 25.

14-Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Aug 15;22(16):5215-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.06.068. Epub 2012 Jul 3.Pinoresinol is a putative hypoglycemic agent in defatted sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds though inhibiting α-glucosidase.

Wikul A1, Damsud TKataoka KPhuwapraisirisan P.

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