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All posts by Zahid Iqbal


Telenor provides balance inquiries for both prepaid and postpaid customers. You can check not only your balance but also the remaining SMS, and internet MBs. in this article we’ll discuss how to check Telenor balance.

How to check Telenor balance 2022- method #1

the answer to your question on how to check your Telenornor balance here is the answer.
You can check the Telenor balance simply by dialing *444#. You’ll get your balance on your mobile phone screen. the charges for this service are Rs 0.20 plus tax( total Rs 0.24)

method #2

If you have a smartphone the answer to how to check Telenor balance is quite simple. You can download and install the Telenor app. Here you don’t have to do anything additional. This app tells your balance at the top left corner. Whenever you load or make a call or use the internet, your balance automatically updates. But the app works on Smartphones only. You can easily download the Telenor app from Google Play Store on your smartphone.

Both prepaid and postpaid customers of Telenor can use the codes below. The user can stay updated with their usage of services at all times.

Subscription Type Price Balance Inquiry Codes
PAYG Rs. 0.24 *444# (Balance)
PAYG Rs. 0.24 *111# (SMS)
PAYG Rs. 0.24 *222# (Minutes)
PAYG Rs. 0.24 *999# (Internet)

The Telenor Pakistan (Pvt.) Limited is one of the  largest cellular & digital services companies in Pakistan  

The company is owned by the Telenor Group, which is a multinational service provider. This organization provides mobile communication, voice, data, content, and other services worldwide in Scandinavia as well as in Asia

How to check Jazz balance

Jazz is one of the leading mobile phone companies in Pakistan. The company also has taken over “Warid” and “Mobilink”. Jazz headquarter is located in the capital-Islamabad.

previously recognized as Mobilink the group was founded in 1994 as a joint venture between Saif Group and Motorolla.

After merging Mobilink and Warid, Mobilink was officially rebranded as Jazz in 2017.

Here are some ways by which you can check Jazz balance.

Method#1 how to check Jazz balance

Dial the following code from your mobile : *111# (Charges Rs 0.24)
To check your Zong balance, the easiest method is to go on your phone dialer and type *111# and just send it via your Zong sim. You’ll instantly get your balance. The charges for this service are Rs.0.20 plus tax, totaling around Rs 0.24

Method#2 how to check Jazz balance

Dial the following dial code: 4446*2#
from your mobile phone dialer, enter the code : *44462# and send a message. you’ll get your jazz balance.


you can send “4” on jazz WhatsApp Self Service number [03003008000] (after sending “Hi”) and you’ll get the balance


Open Jazz World app’s homepage
If you have downloaded and installed the Jazz world app, then there is no need to dial any numbers. The app show you balance at the top left corner. Whenever you load or make a call or use the internet, your balance automatically updates. You can easily download Jazz app from Google Play Store on your smartphone.


Dial 111 helpline (Charges Rs 0.72) to hear the balance details.
Another way to check jazz balance is to call and ask directly about customer jazz service. For this, you have to dial 111 from your phone. You hear a recording. To check your balance you have to press 1 or you can talk to a customer representative by pressing 0 from your phone dialer.

How to check Zong balance

If you’re looking for easy ways to check Zong balance then you are at the right place. Here you can find various methods to check out your balance. Moreover, you’ll also get some useful information about Zong Pakistan.

Zong is one of the biggest cellular companies operated by China mobile. Zong’s headquarter is located in Islamabad.
Let’s start with various methods to check ZONG Balance


To check your Zong balance, the easiest method is to go on your phone dialer and type *222# and just send it via your Zong sim. You’ll instantly get your balance. The charges for this service are Rs.0.20 plus tax, totaling around Rs 0.25.


If you have downloaded and installed the My Zong app, then there is no need to dial any numbers. The Zong app consistently shows you your Zong balance at the top left corner as shown in the picture below. Whenever you load or make a call or use the internet, your balance automatically updates. But remember that Zong app works on Smartphones only. You can easily download Zong app from Google Play Store on your smartphone. See the example picture below.


Another way to check Zong balance is to call and ask directly for customer Zong’s service. For this, you have to dial 310 from your phone. You hear a recording. To check your balance you have to press 1 or you can talk to a customer representative by pressing 0 from your phone dialer. This is a long procedure so I won’t recommend it. But the advantage of this method is that you can get detailed information about any other Zong services.
When you send messages by typing *310# from your phone dialer, you’ll get access to Zong packages. From here you can select various packages
I hope this information shall help you to check your Zong balance and select other Zong services.
Thank you for reading this article.

Dumpster Diving

Dumpster diving sounds like an unsavory activity, but it can actually be quite fun, and sometimes profitable!  Read this article to learn more about the ins and outs of dumpster diving.

What Is Dumpster Diving?

To put it simply, dumpster diving is taking something that someone else doesn’t want and making it into something you can use. It’s simple, effective, and cost-effective. On top of that, it’s a great way to reduce waste and recycle.

What are the types of dumper diving?

We can broadly divide dumpster diving into two classes

#1- The old and traditional dumpster diving

It is looking for some valuable things from garbage like dust bins or other similar sources.

#2- The newer dumpster diving relates to technology and that is retrieving some valuables from IT materials

It is looking for or retrieving data from electronic trash.

We are now going to discuss each category in detail

The old and traditional dumpster diving

this type of dumpster diving is salvaging from massive business, residential, commercial, and production packing containers for unused objects discarded by their proprietors however deemed beneficial to the picker. It isn’t limited to dumpsters and skips mainly and can cowl fashionable family waste packing containers, lessen sides, landfills, or from plunks.

History of dumpster diving

It is very difficult to pinpoint exactly when it was started. However, the term dumpster diving appeared in the 1980s, by the combination of two words, “diving” with “dumpster”( a massive business trash bin)

The word dumpster originated from the name of the Dumpster brothers who created a large bin with the name of the Dumpster in 1937.

the time period “dumpster diving” is mainly observed in American English and primary seemed in print in 1983, with the verb “dumpster-dive” acting some years later.

In British English, the exercise can be referred to as “skipping”, from the past, any other time period for this sort of field.

 The other names now in use are trotting , dumpstering , containering, D-mart, skipping, bin-diving, etc.

Whereas in Australia, the rubbish selection is called “pass dipping.”

 The Pros and Cons of dumpster diving

While dumpster diving, you need to remember a few important things for the people involved. Most importantly, ensure they’re allowed to be on private property and only do so during reasonable hours. Also, make sure not to remove anything toxic or hazardous. The best part about dumpster divers is that it gets him out of his comfort zone, takes little effort, and is a fun way to reclaim stuff from being wasted while also saving money.

The biggest disadvantage of dumpster diving is that one could be charged with trespassing, especially if one gets caught. The person whose trash is being looked through may not even own a home and might not have given permission to scavenge. This can lead to all sorts of legal troubles; therefore, it’s important that everyone take proper precautions when going trash picking and treat it like any other form of scavenging. Many people also worry about germs, but as long as they wear gloves and wash off any items before using them they should be fine.

What do people look for in dumpster diving?

Dumpster diving is practiced in different ways in developing and developed countries. Dumpster divers usually look for;


There is a lot of wastage of food in developed countries. In the United States, about 40-50% of edible items are wasted. So one can find a lot in bins. In America, Canada, and Europe, a few bakeries, grocery shops, or eating places will automatically donate meals consistent with a Good Samaritan Food Donation Act, however greater regularly, due to fitness legal guidelines or employer policy, they’re required to discard meals objects via way of means of the expiration date, due to overstock, being overly ripened, spoiled, cosmetically imperfect, or blemished

However, the situation is pretty much different in developing countries where food is not wasted until it is rotten. Many charity organizations acquire extra meals from supermarkets and eating places and distribute them to impoverished neighborhoods in developing countries.

Damaged or old products

 Offices, factories, branch shops, and different business institutions can also additionally similarly throw out non-perishable objects which might be irregular, have been again, have minor damages, or are changed via way of means of more modern inventory. Many objects have a tendency to be in the sort of kingdom of disrepair or cosmetically wrong that they’ll require a few paintings to make the objects functionally usable. For this reason, personnel will at instances deliberately spoil their objects previous to being discarded to save them from being reused or resold.

Books and reading materials

 As evidence to publishing homes of unsold products, booksellers will automatically eliminate the front covers of revealed substances to render them destroyed previous to doing away with their stays within the rubbish. Though readable, many broken courses have disclaimers and prison notices regarding their lifestyles or sale.

Faulty products from manufacturers

Manufacturers regularly discover it less expensive to automatically discard objects again as faulty below assurance as opposed to repairing them, despite the fact that a tool is regularly repairable or usable as a supply of spare components to restore different, comparable discarded devices.

Electronic devices

Some client electronics are dumped due to their fast depreciation, obsolescence, value to restore, or rate to upgrade. Owners of practical computer systems can also additionally discover it less difficult to unload them in preference to donating due to the fact many nonprofit companies and faculties are unable, or unwilling, to paintings with used equipment. Occasionally, providers cast off unsaleable, non-faulty new products as landfills. The Atari online game burial in Alamogordo, New Mexico after the online game crash of 1983 is a famous example; a 2014 excavation recovered approximately 1300 video games for curation as museum famous or auction.


While thrift shops automatically refuse used items that they can not cost-effectively and without problems resell, the objects which they do receive value them nothing. There is consequently no shrinkage value related to discarding mendable garments, repairable home equipment, or maybe operating donated objects which can be overstocked or discovered by no consumer after a few arbitrary duration of time.

Metallic materials

Sometimes waste can also additionally comprise recyclable metals and substances that may be reused or offered to recycle flowers and scrap yards. The maximum not unusual place recyclable metals observed are metallic and aluminum.

Wooden products

 Called city lumberjacking, to salvage wooden both for domestic heating, or domestic production projects.

Bottles/ cans

 Several international locations, specifically in Northern Europe have enforced a machine wherein empty cans and bottles may be again to shops for money. Usually, the quantity acquired in line with can/bottle is distinctly low, such a lot of honestly discarding them in dumpsters.


At the give up of every faculty 12 months many human beings throw away flawlessly beneficial resources like pencils, pens, notebooks, and artwork resources.


The interest is completed via way of means of human beings out of necessity withinside the growing world. Some scavengers carry out in prepared groups, and a few arrange on numerous net boards and social networking websites.

 By reusing, or repurposing, sources destined for the landfill, dumpster diving is occasionally taken into consideration to be an environmentalist endeavor and is consequently practiced via way of means of many pro-inexperienced communities. The wastefulness of client society and throw-away way of life compels a few people to rescue usable objects (for example, computer systems or smartphones, which can be often discarded because of the vast use of deliberate obsolescence within side the era industry)

A huge range of factors can be disposed of whilst nonetheless repairable or in operating condition, making salvage of them a supply of doubtlessly unfastened objects for private use, or to promote for profit. Irregular, blemished, or broken objects which might be nonetheless in any other case practical are frequently thrown away.

 Discarded meals that could have moderate imperfections, are close to their expiration date, or is honestly being changed via way of means of more modern inventory are regularly tossed out regardless of being nonetheless edible.

Many shops are reluctant to promote this inventory at decreased fees due to the dangers that human beings will purchase it as opposed to the higher-priced more modern inventory, that greater dealing with time is required, and that there are legal responsibility dangers

Dumpster diving may be hazardous, because of the capacity publicity to biohazardous matter, damaged glass, and ordinary unsanitary situations which could exist in dumpsters.

Is dumpster diving illegal?

It is usually considered legal for people to look through the trash that has been placed in a public area such as a curb for pickup. Once the trash is sited in such a place, the someone has basically forfeited his ownership rights to the stuff, as the assets are now in the public place.

In the United States, Dumpster diving is theoretically legal in many states as long as it does not clash with any city, county, or state laws. Off course, when a garbage bag is placed on the restrain waiting to be picked up by a waste elimination company, it becomes public property

However, Suppose dumpsters are typically placed on personal premises. In that case, divers can also additionally once in a while get in hassle for trespassing whilst dumpster diving, eleven though the regulation is enforced with various ranges of rigor.

 Some groups can also additionally lock dumpsters to save pickers from congregating on their assets, vandalism to their assets, and to restrict capacity and legal responsibility if a dumpster diver is injured whilst on their assets.

Police searches of discarded waste in addition to comparable strategies also are typically now no longer taken into consideration violations; proof seized in this way has been authorized in lots of crook trials.

In Ontario, Canada, the Trespass to Property Act—rules courting returned to the British North America Act of 1867. It offers assets proprietors and protection guards the electricity to prohibit everyone from their premises, for any reason, permanently. This is finished via way of means of issuing a note to the intruder, who will handiest be breaking the regulation upon go back. Similar legal guidelines exist in Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan.

Skipping in England and Wales can also additionally qualify as robbery within side the Theft Act 1968 or as not unusual place-regulation robbery in Scotland, even though there’s little or no enforcement in exercise.

In Germany, dumpster diving is stated as a “container”, and a waste field’s contents appear because of the assets of the field’s proprietor. Therefore, taking objects from the sort of field is regarded as robbery. However, the police will automatically push aside the illegality of rubbish selection because the objects observed are typical of low value.

What are the best places for Dumpster divers?

There are so many places for dumpster divers some of them include;

Grocery stores


Retailers stores

Pet stores


Electronic markets

Apartment complexes

Neighborhood homes

Colleges or Universities

Construction areas

Industrial areas

Shopping malls

Florist shops

 Dumpster diving in technology

This is another type of Dumpster Diving in which a diver investigates a person or business’s junk to find information that can be used to assault a computer network.

In this dumpster diver looks at medical or electronic records, Government secrets, financial records, resumes, medical or other billings, and much other valuable stuff by exploring someone”s trash.

Once this information is retrieved it can be used for many purposes which may illegal.

Dumpster diving may look as if like the blow line to an awful joke. However, a person inquiring through y trashcan may find everything they need to pull together a complex enough profile to entrust identity theft 

Treadmill For Home

If you’re in the market for a treadmill, you probably know how important it is to get one that’s high quality and will last you for many years. However, there are plenty of other features that can make your life much easier if you know what to look for, and these 5 qualities are essential if you want the best treadmill possible.

1) A treadmill with an incline

According to a recent study from Brigham Young University, treadmill runners who walked on an incline for 30 minutes three times a week lost significantly more body fat than those who ran at a flat or decline setting. The reason? Most treadmills are calibrated to decrease incline as speed increases—so your body is forced to work harder in order to maintain the pace. Over time, that translates into major calorie burn. And while you’re at it, be sure to walk during portions of your workout and run at full speed during others. The dynamic treadmill will help you reach your weight-loss goals faster.

2) Noise level

Even if you’re on a budget, it’s crucial to find a treadmill that doesn’t make too much noise. Health clubs tend to be louder than home treadmills due to carpeting, sound-dampening foam, and other factors, but you should still look for treadmills that are as quiet as possible. If your treadmill is too loud, you’ll have trouble focusing while running and listening to your music or television show of choice. Look for treadmills with top speeds under 12 miles per hour; these will be quieter. Also, ensure that there aren’t any distracting background noises in your workout area like buzzing lights or whirring fans.

3) Perks

The treadmill is one of those machines that has earned its fair share of criticism over time, but it’s hard to deny its usefulness when it comes to working out. Depending on your workout and what you’re trying to accomplish, a treadmill can be an excellent choice. What are some of those benefits? And how do you know if you’re getting a good one?

4) Storage space

If you’re going to be using your treadmill regularly, storage space is key. If your home or apartment doesn’t have much space to spare, you should go for a folding treadmill that you can stash away until it’s time to exercise. An under-desk treadmill can also give you more room—and increase your daily steps by another 2,000 per day. For example, walk and talk with clients at work or walk while reading an email instead of sitting down. Whether you want extra walking space or just more room in general, consider investing in a small under-desk treadmill today! They’re compact enough to fit into almost any type of home—and help boost weight loss along with it!

5) Heart monitor

If you’re interested in a treadmill for your home, it’s worth considering one with a built-in heart monitor. Not only does it keep track of your daily heart rate but it also guides you through an exercise plan that will help improve your overall health. A lot of treadmills also come with built-in audio features so you can listen to music while you work out. If you’re looking for an at-home treadmill and want to be sure to choose one that fits all of your workout needs, make sure that it has a quality heart monitor and audio system.

Don’t Buy a Treadmill Until You Read This!

For those of you who run at home, using one of the many popular treadmills can be an excellent way to burn calories and get in shape without having to go to the gym every day. If you’re thinking about getting your own treadmill, or if you already have one but want to find out how to use it properly, here are some tips and tricks that will help you get the most out of your time on the machine!

Why the best treadmills are expensive

Any treadmill that costs under $500 is going to be junk. The cheapest machines are generally poorly built and have high failure rates. When you find one that doesn’t break down after 6 months, it will start squeaking and not running smoothly. Even if it does still work, that type of machine isn’t worth more than $200 anyway. It has low-quality parts and likely won’t last long enough for you to get your money’s worth out of it. If you can’t afford a higher-quality treadmill, then simply don’t buy one until you can save up enough to get something good.

Walkers, Joggers, and Runners

Which One Are You? Before you run out and buy that treadmill you’ve been eyeing, you may want to take some time to decide which type of runner or walker you are—and whether or not buying one is even worth it. So sit back and find out if getting a treadmill is right for your next fitness goal.

The Best Home Treadmills

Getting in shape is no easy task. And with today’s hectic lifestyles, getting enough exercise can be even more difficult. Many people who are just beginning their fitness journey don’t have time to join a gym or hit up a local running trail for their daily workout. That’s why many individuals turn to home treadmills for their exercise needs. If you’re thinking about buying one of these machines but aren’t sure which one is right for you, read on. We will explain how to find good home treadmills and help you narrow down your choices to make your decision easier.

The Best Budget Running Machines

The lightweight and budget-friendly machines are ideal for runners who want to stay fit without investing in a heavy, full-size treadmill. Models of both styles come in all sizes, with smaller options having wheels so they can be easily moved from room to room. They also fold up easily when not in use for easy storage. While these models aren’t as heavy-duty as their more expensive counterparts, they do offer an amazing workout at an unbeatable price. With several adjustable options, such as incline settings and heart rate monitors, you can control your workout and track your progress over time to keep up with your goals.


If you want to purchase a home treadmill, consider investing in an incline trainer. These machines are affordable and are great for heart health and weight loss. An incline trainer is also more compact than standard treadmills, making it easier to find space for one in your home. Start your shopping with these options.

10 Methods of Online Earnings You Might Not Have Thought Of

The Internet and the many online services it provides have made it possible to earn money in new ways, outside of the usual nine-to-five, Monday-through-Friday work schedule. But even with so many options available, you’re still probably using only one or two of them to earn extra cash on the side or bring in a full-time income from home. Here are 10 methods of online earnings you might not have thought of.

1) Affiliate Marketing

One of the methods of earning money online is affiliate marketing. This involves a company selling a product or service and paying you a commission for each sale. All you need to do is refer people to their site, and if they make any purchases while there, you’ll get paid.

2) Crowdfunding

Crowdfunding allows you to raise money from donors to help fund your project. This is a great option for an entrepreneur on a tight budget who’s looking for alternative methods of financing their company. Be aware that most crowdfunding sites, such as Kickstarter and Indiegogo, charge fees—but they also give you access to potential donors who may be interested in supporting your business!

3) Freelancing

One great way to earn money online is by freelancing. By taking on small projects and completing them for clients, you can make a decent amount of money from home. But there are some important tips you should know before getting started. Freelancing can be an excellent source of extra income or a full-time career if you don’t mind a little hard work and perseverance.

4) Influencer Marketing

Before you consider paying an influencer to work with your brand, you need to get their attention. One way that many companies do so is by offering them a fee or other incentive for every person they get to try your product or service. This is called influencer marketing, and while it can be effective if done right, it can also backfire when done wrong.

5) Investing

Investing is a great way to make money—you get to save your cash, which generates interest and grows over time. But investing isn’t for everyone; you have to know what you’re doing or hire a professional.

6) Giveaways

One common method for earning money is to run giveaways. In a giveaway, you give away a product that has value in exchange for people giving you their email address and subscribing to your list. You can then use your email list to market other products to them over time or deliver more value. Giveaways are good for building a large audience quickly, but they don’t usually convert very well because there isn’t much of an investment on their part.

7) Patience Pays Off

Building an online business is not a get-rich-quick scheme, but it can be incredibly rewarding if you’re willing to be patient. Many bloggers were blogging years before they started seeing any money from their sites. Be prepared to learn and stick with it!

8) Selling Information Products (e.g. eBooks, Courses, etc.)

If you are an expert in your field and can create information products, you may want to consider selling those products online. Information products can sell very well online if they are done correctly. If you have experience writing or creating these kinds of things, you can make a good living selling them on sites like Clickbank or Amazon.

9) Sell your photos or videos on microstock sites (i.e. Shutterstock, Fotolia, etc.)

Sell your photos or videos on microstock sites. Selling photos and videos online is a good way to generate passive income since you earn money whether or not you sell anything. The best-known microstock photo site is Shutterstock, which has over 15 million royalty-free stock photos. If you’re considering becoming a freelance photographer, Fotolia is also worth checking out; they have more than 5 million images for licensing for just $1.

10) Teaching Others (e.g. YouTube channel, website, blog, etc.)

If you have a talent or hobby, consider teaching others how to do it! There are a variety of ways to teach what you know, from a YouTube channel and tutorial website (we like Teachable for its user-friendly interface) to writing an eBook and self-publishing it on Amazon. Also, if your hobby requires equipment that would make it difficult for others to learn from you in person (like DJing), create instructional videos on sites like YouTube instead. Be sure to offer different pricing options too so that your target customers can find something they can afford.

Revolution of technology in education

 Julia M Cameron– Pexels

Technology has a big impact and revolutionized the way people live and work. It has become a necessity, if for a day we are deprived of electricity we feel our lives have come to an end. We are now depending a lot on electricity and have reached to an extent from where there is no return is possible. Technology has allowed us to unleash many hidden secrets of the universe and has put many interesting challenges for the people like traveling to the moon and going deep in the ocean.

Technology has captured all imperative aspects of our lives. Revolution in industries was the result of the introduction of machinery. Now, the entire workforce on earth is directly or indirectly linked to technology, millions daily reap huge benefits from technology. Education is one sector that demands technology to the maximum. Technology very smoothly fits into the academic activities going on in schools. With technology in schools, parents can keep a stricter eye on their kids as the school administration has the contacts of parents and they can be immediately informed if the kid bunks school or arrives late. With the help of voice mail, the parents are able to keep informed about the progress of their children. It has also facilitated teachers to a great extent. They can send homework to the students from home, receive assignments online and even grade them on the computer.

Colleges and universities have experienced more advantages than schools. These institutes have made online libraries on dedicated networks. These libraries have all the courses and much other relevant information. Students and teachers are given access to these libraries. Using the sources of online libraries the teachers can prepare better notes and lectures for the class whereas the students have unlimited access to books and journals that greatly helps them in understanding the subjects easily and more independently; the students can even search for term papers.

The workflow of the educational institute’s administration is also made simple due to technology. They can maintain students’ profiles on software. With exclusive online facilities, the students are allowed to register for the coming session or the classes. Several student-teacher communities are made online in which students are encouraged to question the teachers about the problems they are facing in their subjects. Student council body forums are also generated that hold lively sessions amongst students related to progress they wish to see in the institute.

Now it is a trend for all educational institutes to have a web presence. This web presence allows the school or the university to be available for service to the entire world. They update their websites with coming admission dates, available courses, fee structure, and also introduce to the staff. The best aspect of these websites is that they display the coming events and happenings in their schools, like this if there is a seminar coming up on fashion design in the college auditorium the interested students would know.

Constant technology improvements are being introduced in the educational sector to create more and more facilities for the students and the teachers.

How Overthinking Could Ruin Your life?

We think because we are alive breathing and we like to question things. There’s a side in us which questions a lot and likes to analyze every little thing. Unfortunately, though, sometimes this becomes a habit for many and it can get so intense that it could ruin your life. This becomes a toxic cycle difficult to escape and everyone around you also might suffer as a result. The easiest way to stop overthinking though is to drop all expectations. Without expectations, there are only pleasant surprises.


Entering the mind of an Overthinker

When someone thinks it starts off normal, but then somewhere they get stuck in a loop. They keep trying to go deeper and deeper and while they do this, they think they are solving some sort of a problem. But the reality is they are trying to find problems where there are none.

Often it comes from a place of feeling vulnerable. We’re all somewhat fearful of the unknown and future. We keep trying to solve these problems within our heads. An overthinker dwells either in the past or the future with no regard for the present which they could work on.

Simply put all it takes is a single event or a memory to start a domino effect of overthinking and linking all the negative experiences while ignoring all the neutral and positive ones. This goes the other way too often the overthinker will only think about all the positive experiences and dwell on their current negative situation without reminding themselves of how they reached those positive states previously. Overthinking and anxiety are very related to each other.

Games Your Mind Plays

Ironic process theory

Here’s a classic example of the ironic process theory, If you ask someone to not think of a pink elephant they will be more likely to picture it. This happens because deliberate attempts to suppress thoughts make them more likely to appear in your mind. So by extension brute-forcing, your way out of overthinking is usually very difficult.

Your mind loves taking shortcuts wherever it can. We shove so much information in that little thing that it has to take any shortcuts. In doing so, however, it can also take shortcuts to your emotional interpretations of certain situations in your head.

Playing the blame game

Whenever there is anything that you perceive to be negative and if you can find someone to pin the blame on to someone else, you will more than often take it. This is a normal thing and almost everyone has done this at least once in their life. But coming out of this toxic cycle can calm your mind.

Understanding the risks

Once you overthink it’s a downward spiral from here. It will become an inescapable loop that is very difficult to break. I still suffer from this problem sometimes as I write this, but with time and patience, it can get better for you.

You will look at everything with an eye of suspicion. Especially if you’re isolated or introverted, this is something that happens often. You might be fearful of unknown people or trying new things because you just can’t stop thinking.

Fear slowly infests its way into your daily life and becomes a part of your entire identity. This isn’t the kind of fear that saves it but the kind that destroys you.

Stop overthinking-Getting your life back

Once you are deep into the habit of overthinking every situation, the real quest begins when you decide you want to change it. Realizing the problem and starting your effort towards taking care of this problem is the first step.

Get into a habit of making your thinking sessions into constructive criticism sessions instead. Being constructive about a problem not only lets you reach a conclusion, but also keeps you sane. When you look at problems as things to solve you will start to think of ways how you will solve them rather than simmering them in your mind. If you are an over-thinker, this is the best you can do for now.

Once you learn how you can end the loop which keeps pulling you deeper, you can keep practicing it as long as you need it or until you find a better way.

Observe the lies your mind feeds you. You could even bait your mind into wandering off into pointless loops of overthinking over harmless little things. Catching yourself in the middle of such loops can be great training for you to apply it.

The most important path though is to be aware of yourself and the things and people around you. Learn to live in the now and spend little to no time inside your head. We all have internal monologues, some just have a voice that keeps going on even when you ask for it to stop. But there’s no chance for that to happen if you don’t spend time inside your head.

You should also rephrase all the questions that enter your mind with a better context. Instead of thinking “I’m stuck in my life” tell yourself “I will pursue a more fulfilling lifestyle”.

There could be times when you realize you just can’t stop overthinking and that is a part of your trait. Which is perfectly fine. But you need to learn how to use it to your advantage. Instead of using this trait of overthinking to damage your mind, you could channel it towards more productive things. In doing so, you just might find the formula that works for you.

Most people who overthink have a very strong internal voice. Working on your internal voice just might solve it. To achieve this, you need to stand up to this voice and be as critical as you can. Every single time you hear an internal voice, just try to criticize it without fail.


Overthinking is a plague that infests almost everyone, but even then it can still be used for good if you could switch the way you go about thinking. Constructive thinking is far superior to gloating and simmer over things that happened years ago and relating them to the current situations at hand.

Distractions can be another amazing tool to keep you from overthinking. Try to stay present as much as you can and work with your internal voice if you can. If you can’t work with your internal voice, stop trying to stay inside your head for too long and figure out other things to do.

Vaginal Yeast Infection in women


Women are vulnerable to vaginal yeast infections at different stages of their lives which is a normal occurrence to many. Though, the infection is relatively uncommon before puberty and after menopause. Yeast infections can be easily treated and avoided.

Narrative of Vaginal Yeast Infection

The vagina inhibits some good bacteria necessary for its functions.  However, an overgrowth of the bacteria causes yeast infection.  There are some symptoms of this infection that may include itching, burning sensation, itching, and whitish thick discharge.

 Who are at risk of getting Yeast Infection

About 75% of women always get the infection once in a while. You may have a higher risk of getting this infection if you are:

  1. Expectant
  2. Diabetic
  3. Using birth control pills that contain high estrogen levels
  4. Constantly douching or using vaginal sprays
  5. Taking antibiotics or just completed a dose
  6. Having a weak immune system

Main Symptoms of the infection

  • Itchiness, redness and a sore vagina
  • Burning sensation when urinating or having intercourse
  • A white, thick and curd like odorless discharge
  • rash(vaginal)
  • may be watery discharge

Can one Get Yeast infection from Intercourse

Not usual but possible. Though a yeast infection is not considered an STI, you can get it from your partner if he/she is infected.  However, as mentioned above, you can get a yeast infection without intercourse.

Should I Consult a Doctor?

Yes. Since the vagina is vulnerable to a number of infections, it is best to visit your doctor who is in a better position to diagnose what type of infection you have.

However, some women can easily identify a yeast infection and can treat it without a prescription. You ought to be very sure that what you are treating with over-the-counter medication for the yeast infection and not any other vaginal infection. in short, you should consult a health professional/doctor if ;

  • This is hapening first time
  • You’re not certain about yeast infection
  • Your are not benifited by the use of over-the-counter antifungal vaginal creams.
  • Your symptoms are worsening


The infection is usually treated with anti-fungal medicine either through the use of oral tablets, applications like creams, or tablets that are inserted into the vagina.

Should My Partner be Treated too?

Probably.  Although this is not STI, a yeast infection can be passed on to your partner. However, If the male partner also has an itching rash on the penis, he should seek a doctor.


  • Avoid douching which kills the good bacteria too
  • Avoid scented products around your vagina
  • Change your tampons or pads often
  • Avoid tight pants because they increase the warmth and moisture content.
  • Wear only cotton underwear that keeps you dry with less warmth and moisture
  • Always wipe your bikini area from front to back
  • Avoid very hot water and soaps when cleaning your vagina – use lukewarm water.

Yogurt and Yeast Treatment

 Somehow. Some studies have revealed that drinking yogurt that contains live cultures on a daily basis helps in preventing infection. Most women who use yogurt have reported lower yeast infection rates. though, further research and investigation are still underway to determine it.

Source: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.  (2013). Vaginal Yeast Infection.

10 Most Effective Ways to Lose Belly Fat


Most people do not have obesity or weight issues but find that the biggest problem is belly fat.  To most ladies, it is actually a cosmetic issue while actually to most men, it is obviously a health problem.  Therefore anyone with excess belly fat will always be on the lookout for ways to get rid of it.

A few proven ways to target the belly fat can be applied as follows:

1- Avoid Sugar

Research has shown that sugar has some harmful effects on metabolism. Sugar contains glucose and fructose.  When you consume sugar in large amounts, the liver, which metabolizes fructose gets flooded and turns it into fat which accumulates in the belly.

Sweetened beverages are even worse in this case.

Minimize your intake of refined sugar and increase consumption of whole fruit that has enough fiber to mitigate the negative effects of fructose.

2- Take More Protein

If you increase more Protein in your diet, that will be a better long-term strategy to reduce your belly fat.

This could be surprising but it is the most crucial macronutrient to accelerate weight loss.

It reduces cravings and boosts metabolism. It will also help to avoid regaining the lost weight. Some evidence has indicated that protein is very effective in getting rid of belly fat.

Increasing your intake of fish, poultry and low-fat dairy products helps a great deal.

3- Reduce the Carb intake

Restricting carb intake can be very effective in losing belly fat. Studies have shown that when you cut carbs in your diet, your appetite goes down resulting in weight loss.

Avoid refined carbs (white bread, white rice, pasta, etc) should be good enough, more so if you maintain your protein intake at a good level.

Cutting out a significant amount of carbs in the diet leads to ketosis, which kills your appetite pushing the body to start burning fats for fuel.

4- Increase intake of fiber

Viscous or soluble Fiber helps a lot with weight loss.  The fiber absorbs water from the food and forms a thick gel which slows down the digestion process giving the body enough time to absorb nutrients.  This in turn creates a feeling of fullness reducing your appetite dramatically.  This will certainly help you in your weight-loss drive.

5- Exercise regularly

This is the best treat you can ever give to your body. Exercise has the utmost importance in your life if you want to stay healthy and keep away many diseases.

Exercises like swimming, walking, dancing, and running have been proven to reduce belly fat.  It will also prevent re-gaining the weight.

Generally, exercise will also improve your overall health.

6- Check on your diet

Be always alert on what and how much you are eating.  Most people do not even know if they are eating a high protein meal or a low-carb meal. Eat only what is important.

It is also important to keep a track of your calories and weigh yourself regularly just to keep a watch on your body. This is the only way you achieve your goals – measure results.

7- Avoid stress

Belly fat really rooted in stress. You can have a situation where you’re pretty regular weight in the rest of your body.  Then in some stressful situations, you accumulate fat around the belly because stress and belly fat really go hand-in-hand

 Handling and managing your stress is going to be really important. While it’s not exactly easy to live a stress-free lifestyle

 One thing you can do is actively make time to do things that are relaxing and stress relieving.

 Going out for a long walk in nature is a wonderful way  not only to reduce your stress levels but also incorporate that physical exercise that would also help you get rid of that belly fat

8- Sleep properly

Getting a relaxed sleep is another wonderful way to reduce the levels of cortisol or stress hormones that cause belly fat. Do your best in your life that helps you live a more relaxed and happy.

9- Take green tea

Green tea contains important ingredients and anti-oxidant which really boost metabolism in your body. These ingredients help to reduce your belly fat. So green tea is really a wonderful beverage.

10- Add apple cider vinegar

Daily taking apple cider vinegar is another wonderful remedy to cut back belly fat. Besides many other benefits, It also helps to lose belly fat and prevent the storage of fat in your belly. It should be diluted in water to prevent some harmful effects on your teeth.

Final Word– Loosing belly fat is not an easy procedure.  Remember it has taken time to accumulate and time is needed to get rid of it. Patience and hard work is a must.  However, some supplements are available in the market to help jump start the procedure if you are a little impatient.

However, we will not recommend to going for them, instead do you best efforts.

You can get some exellent plans and products to loss belly fast from clicking here

6 Healthy Foods which will naturally cut back your craving

Wouldn’t or not it’s nice if you’ll simply facilitate yourself from uptake too much? It wouldn’t be terribly laborious for you to utter, “No, thank you as you actually mean it and you’re actually not hungry.

That hungry feeling is what causes you to overeat. It’s terribly laborious to remain among the parameters of your weight loss arrange anytime you are feeling hungry. You just end up eating more, succumbing to every kind of food temptation there is.

The best way to lose weight and to keep it off is to stay satiated all the time. Now, this does not give you an excuse to eat whatever that’s there. You really shouldn’t do that.

What it means to stay satiated is to eat small portions of healthy foods round the clock.  This way, you won’t have to deal with hunger and you can easily say, “No thank you”. Eating these six healthy foods can easily help curb your appetite.


Do you want to curb your appetite? Eat some pistachios and other nuts. In spite of the high-calorie content of nuts, they can actually help you lose weight. The reason for that is because they help keep you feel fuller for a longer time. Nuts can also boost your metabolism.

When it comes to eating pistachios, you’ll benefit more from the in-shelled pistachios. Studies show that folks who ate in-shelled pistachios consumed lesser calories as compared to the folks who chose to snack on the shelled pistachios.

Seeing a pile of shells sends a message that it’s time to stop eating. This somehow gives you a feeling of fullness. It will also help you resist whatever food comes along.


Yes, apples not only keep the doctor away but also melt the pounds away. Apples are loaded with soluble fiber that can easily make you feel full according to research on diet and weight loss site At the same time, they contain a natural compound called, ursolic acid that can help burn a lot of fat.

You will surely benefit from eating the whole apple. Not only will it help curb your appetite, but you’ll also have glowing skin as well.


If you worry about overeating during the day, you should make sure to eat an egg for breakfast. Eggs actually quell ghrelin, the hormone that makes you feel hungry.  At the same time, they elevate two other hormones that help keep you feel satiated the whole day.

So don’t think twice about eating that egg for breakfast. It will definitely help curb your appetite. You’ll be feeling full the whole day.


Now, you have every reason to eat mangoes. These yummy fruits are loaded with bioactive ingredients, which include a compound called mangiferin. This particular compound helps trim body fat.

There’s also one more good reason as to why you should be eating more mangoes. These stone fruits actually help control your blood sugar levels. So don’t hesitate to add some mangoes to your diet. They’re good for your health. At the same time, you’ll be feeling full and satiated for a longer period of time.


According to a study that was published in the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, overweight folks were able to lose ten pounds in a span of 16 weeks by adding more nuts to their diet. Not only did their weight improve, so did their blood cholesterol levels.

Beans, such as lentils, chickpeas, and peas, are loaded with lots and lots of fiber. You can also get a lot of protein from beans. These fiber-rich foods can easily help you control your cravings, eventually curbing your appetite.

Greek Yogurt

Yes, you can indulge in yogurt so long as it’s the Greek variety. You’ve probably heard about the benefits of eating Greek yogurt. There’s just so much fuss about it since it can really help in weight loss

According to research, calcium, protein, and probiotics help keep the weight down. So stop reaching out for certain foods that will only ruin your diet. Instead, opt to indulge in a creamy cup of Greek yogurt. This way, you can easily watch your weight and curb your appetite.

Curbing your appetite is not an easy thing to do. Some folks go to the extent of taking appetite suppressants just so they can curb their appetite. Don’t make the mistake of doing that. You will only endanger your health. These six healthy foods can help you curb your appetite the natural way.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a hyperglycemic state (increased glucose level), that develops during pregnancy.

It generally disappears after childbirth. As it is diagnosed first time during pregnancy, so it is called gestational diabetes.

It may occur at any time during pregnancy, but more commonly in the second and third trimesters.

Gestational diabetes is a brief condition that occurs during pregnancy. This is probably one of the top health problems that a woman has to face during pregnancy.

Really is a double evil! If a woman has had diabetes during pregnancy, it is most likely to pass on to her children.

Thus, if a pregnant woman has gestational diabetes, there are increased chances of developing diabetes for both mother and child.

Well-judged knowledge about this condition goes to control it effectively by diet and exercise.

After the baby is born, the mother and the child both recover their original health. One crisis gives room for a series of troubles.

The most important risk is the birth of an overweight baby. The condition is known as Macrosomia.

There may be some problems by birth, the most important one being damage to the baby’s shoulders during birth. Some basic precautions should be taken to reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes.

It is taking options to natural methods again! Make it a point to lose weight, if you are overweight.

You should be careful and choosy about your food, and above all, do exercise regularly.

Successful controlling of blood sugar during pregnancy can keep you and your baby healthy and prevent a difficult delivery.

This type of diabetes is a temporary condition, a transient phase that occurs during pregnancy. There is another risk for the baby during this condition. It may develop breathing problems.

What are the causes of gestational diabetes, it is exactly not known yet? But there are certain clues and possibilities as, why gestational diabetes occurs! There is insulin resistance.

 The placenta, which connects mother and baby in the womb, helps the baby as it grows and produces several hormones.

Hormones help the baby to develop. But the hormones may also do a damaging act. For example, they may alter the action of the mother’s insulin in her body. The mother’s body finds it hard to use insulin, so her requirement of insulin goes up by 300 % and gestational diabetes is the result!

Maximum care is needed to fight gestational diabetes, as it concerns the mother’s health and that of the baby. Food choices are of principal importance. They will have valuable effects on the health of your baby’s growth. If your health is remarkable, there will be less risk of cesarean section birth.

In numerous cases, there are pieces of evidence that gestational diabetes leads to type II diabetes later.

You should do exercise regularly even during pregnancy, but you must consult your doctor before starting it.

This is the decisive period for you as well as for the baby. Correct exercises give strength to your body and have beneficial effects on the growth of the baby within.

Close up the door for diabetes, even if it is related to the only gestation. This is evil and doesn’t deserve our mercy.

How to Place video on your website

Suppose, you need to put the video on your site then you should have a piece of decent information on the essential video document types. What video record type to utilize? What are the upsides and downsides of each document type? These are just a part of the requests you should posture to yourself prior to proceeding with video execution on your site pages

There are three essential video record types on the web, MPEG, AVI, and QuickTime. I accept the QuickTime document type is the most mainstream since a ton of gigantic amusement and news destinations use it only on their website pages.

AVI is the most established of the three principle record types. It is windows arranged video design yet it’s not the most mainstream because of the sound and video similarity and synchronizing issues. Since the QuickTime arrangement can be utilized on either windows or a Mac PC, the AVI video document type loses its prevalence consistently.

The MPEG design is a mainstream video record type that utilizes its high yield quality to build its notoriety over the QuickTime design. Mpeg is utilized on computer games, CD ROM, and different media that require high yield quality. One insult of MPEG is that it repentances record size to gain in cutting edge quality. The MPEG video documents are typically enormous.

Another impediment of the MPEG design is that you truly need time and complex equipment and programming to change over plain video into MPEG.

 Likewise, we ought not to neglect to recollect that the MPEG configuration isn’t maintained by apple and Mac inferring that in case you put video MPEG on your site, those clients with a Mac cannot see it.

QuickTime is by a wide margin the most mainstream video record type created by Apple for Mac clients, but at the same time is viable with the IBM-viable machines and the windows working frameworks. The equipment and programming you need to digitize video into the QuickTime design are exceptionally economical, contrasted with the MPEG design. So it’s a lot simpler and less expensive to make a video and put it on your site utilizing the QuickTime design.


OK, you’ve chosen that you need to bring in cash with Affiliate Marketing. Along these lines, you join some subsidiary projects and begin submitting free promotions to bulletins and free publicizing classifieds destinations. You will bring in BIG cash now – correct?

Not a chance! Sorry! Merely handing over a couple of promotions won’t do it. Not assuming you need to be a genuine achievement.

You should initially decide your enthusiasm. I mean other than bringing in the cash! What is your interest? What do you realize how to do really well? What is your work? Every person has some unique incredible ability. Discover yours.

You likely have more than one thing that you are extremely keen on and progress admirably. Check whether you can discover five (ten in cases you’re truly driven). Record them in a rundown. Keep in mind that you will be investing a great deal of energy working on this subject. Ensure you appreciate it!

Go down everything on your rundown. Begin composing a harsh framework of all that you think about the subject. It doesn’t need to be intricate. This is simply to give you a thought of how much data is accessible for a given subject.

Attempt mind planning. Record the fundamental subject of your thought. Draw a circle around it. Presently, begin considering sub-classes that are identified with your primary classification. Define a boundary from your principle class and end it with a circle. Put the sub-classification title inside this circle. Find as many sub-classes (and sub-sub-classifications) as you can.

Go through every one of your inclinations with this methodology. Pick the one that you realize the most about and that you can expound on serenely.

Imagine a scenario in which you “figure” you don’t think enough about your subject. Then, at that point, do some examination. Understand books and magazines. Do some pursuits on the Internet. Who can say for sure? You may discover a region, a specialty that is simply hanging tight for you to fill with valuable data.

There’s significantly more to offshoot showcasing. Be that as it may, the initial step is to discover your energy. Your “enthusiasm” doesn’t need to bring in cash on the Internet. It tends to cook, sewing, billiards, or whatever. Truth be told, it’s better on the off chance that you discover a specialty that isn’t in the web-based promoting field since that is the thing that almost every other person is doing.

Make your subject remarkable. Make it yours. Furthermore, make it your energy. It will compensate you fairly.

Data recovery, how to find an advisor

Everybody’s PC crashes from time to time. So what would you be able to do after that feared crash? Recruit a Data Recovery advisor or Consultant.

 You wouldn’t allow someone to discard significant reports or records of yours, okay? Indeed, don’t allow your PC to pull off that all things considered.

Regardless of whether your business has reinforcement records, your information is still in danger of erasure. That is the reason it’s ideal to have a Data Recovery Consultant on your side.

 At the point when your hard drive crashes, it very well may be something unnerving. Imagine a scenario where you lose the information you never had the opportunity to reinforce.

Imagine a scenario where you need that information to be recuperated right away. Consider the possibility that commonplace rebuilding systems aren’t working.

Mishaps occur, yet something like this isn’t as simple to disregard as spilled milk. So before that feared PC crash, why not make a game arrangement?

Expressly reestablishing your hard drive information is certifiably not an optimal choice yet a Data Recovery firm or advisor can pull a “Last-ditch effort” for you. Still not persuaded you should place matters into others’ hands?

Indeed, there are convincing benefits to surrendering a fix to an expert. To begin with, talented specialists will improve work; they have insight under their belts and will think around a few various types of information misfortune and rebuilding.

Also, they have the appropriate instruments, gear, and programming gadgets needed for the fix – things you would need to put resources into you in any case. Furthermore, on the off chance that your information recuperation needs are for a business, there is the familiar proverb “time is cash” you might need to remember. An expert can save you time.

Stay away from the danger of losing touchy and significant information and stay away from the migraine of attempting to reestablish that information by a cutoff time! Recruit an expert.

 In any case, how would you approach discovering an information recuperation firm? A company’s administrations can be costly and the danger of information misfortune can in any case be high on the off chance that you don’t explore a firm ahead of time.

Contact a specialist co-op and track down a helpful, however legitimate organization to go to. An expert may cost significantly more than sending your drive out to a firm, however essentially fix can be on your own turf.

Gauge the expenses and benefits and choose what is ideal – in any case, your information is presumably more secure in a specialist’s hands and not your own. The Internet is additionally an extraordinary method to get some answers concerning a company’s faculty and administrations.

Frequently you can even peruse suggestions by different customers. However, don’t simply investigate a firm from far off; feel free to create time to stop for a moment to talk with workers so you can be guaranteed of their capabilities.

Basics of e-Commerce to start an online business

e-commerce stands for electronic commerce and it is buying and selling of products or services on the internet and also of transfer of money for the purchase of products or services.   

A product or a service online, e-commerce has expanded exponentially in recent years and will continue to do so in the future for small and medium, or even large-sized businesses.

It’s a business all the way through to large corporations and even independent freelancers who have benefited from e-commerce for their products and services, and are now so easy to discover and purchase.  

At any hour of any day from almost anywhere globally, such business remains on the active.

E-commerce is the fastest-growing retail market, so why wouldn’t you want to be a part of that. There are a lot of benefits to hopping on e-commerce.  

Being electronic you have a global market this multiplies your target audience exponentially, and you’ll also choose who your customers are and define how to target them with your store being online. You’re essentially open 24/7 365 days a year there’s no need to flip that sign-on.  

Your front door that states open on one side and closed on the other, customers can purchase your goods all day any day.

You also have the ability to work from anywhere in the world provided that you have an internet connection, you’re also going to require a lower investment.

Costs are very low as compared to a physical store, so you can open an e-commerce store provided that you have the few essentials to get started these essentials include a product or service to sell, a  place to sell them a means to process payments, and a marketing strategy to attract customers.  

Let’s discuss each of these a little further, so you will need a product or service to sell right off the bat. You can either make something  yourself or you can source it from somewhere else  

Some things you must keep in mind that to whom you want to sell your product or service that is unique.

You don’t want to sell something that every other Tom Dick and  Harry is selling, what’s the point this means more competition and fewer chances of sales also try and think of a product or a service that solves someone’s problem no one likes having problems. 

So if you have something that can solve enough people’s problems, you’re a winner. Finally, the cost of your goods and the selling price of your products at a low enough rate that you remain competitive to similar products on the market however you don’t want to price yourself too low that you don’t make a  sufficient profit to keep operating.

On the other hand, you have to be careful with the price that is too high, otherwise, no one will purchase your products.

As you will be selling your goods, and the nature of e-commerce is selling online, so you’re not going to be looking for a brick-and-mortar location or physical storefront, you’ll need a website or an eCommerce platform to sell your products.

You can either build your own website or use a  CMS content management system, a CMS provides the basic framework for your website and allows you to add and edit your products accept.

Building your own website, the factors to keep in mind are when choosing your CMS platform are pricing, scalability, flexibility, and ease of use.

Keep in mind that your website or CMS platform is acting as your physical shop, this is where people come to interact with you and purchase your goods. This is where you influence them, this is where you impact how likely they are to convert from a visitor to a  sale and hopefully a repeat sale so the decision of where you will be selling your goods is one of the most important ones that you will make choices wisely.

The next thing to think about is  how you’ll be transacting with customers this is a  really important decision your payment provider is  someone that needs to be credible and trustworthy  because after all the ones are handling your  income

Important points to keep in mind here are compatibility with your eCommerce platform available in the countries that your business is targeting the ability to accept payments in different currencies the fees charged reliability and reporting and usability and customer support. 

some payment processes that we highly recommend  are stripe and PayPal

Lastly, you’ll need a good marketing strategy to attract your customers let’s face it if you don’t attract customers to your online store you aren’t going to make sales.

It’s not like having a physical storefront where need a good amount of work if you’re going to be successful, it’s also an area that constantly needs to be revisited reviewed, and adjusted based on what’s bringing your traffic and what is not.

There are a few areas of focus, for this one social media has become a channel of digital influence and is a brilliant tool for building brand awareness it’s almost impossible. 

For new brands to be successful online without some sort of social media like Facebook, Twitter Pinterest, Instagram, and other networks can be used for almost everything from specific targeting and real-time engagement to customer service and direct sales.

It’s a no-brainer to  stay heavily active on these platforms and the  best part of these are they’re free number two  

SEO stands for search engine optimization. This refers to techniques that help your business to rank higher in search engine results pages, this makes your website more visible to people who are looking for products or services.

Google search to find what you’re looking for. Our websites are to be ranked there because of good SEO. You also need to formulate official emails. It is a highly successful tool to keep your audience engaged and to increase your business. Emails marketing is growing up pretty fast. You can take advantage of this technique.

Benefits of e-commerce

online commerce has benefits. Following are some of the important ones.

  1. Easier
    online buying makes purchases simpler, faster, and less time-consuming, allowing for 24-hour sales, quick delivery, and easy returns.
  2. Improvement
    E-commerce makes have capacity to improve and by customer feedbacks which may be available instantly. In this way the products or services can fulfill customer satisfaction.
  3. Global access
    Customers from all around can reach to your site. There is no need to travel to purchase products. So corporations are no longer restricted by geography or physical barriers.
  4. Less costly
    As there is no need of land, construct building or shops ,no bricks or concrete needed, so internet business can be started with much less costs.

When I got COVID-19


Dr. Zahid Iqbal

Photo- fernando zhiminaicela pixabay

On that day, I was feeling tired during my duty. Though I didn’t have high grade-fever instead, I had strange kinds of feelings and frustration without any obvious reason.

“Go home and sleep, something continuously insisting me?”

COVID-19 was on peak. Being a medical doctor, l didn’t quit my job during the lockdown in my town. I used all protective measures against COVID-19 during my job as well as moving outside the home.

After duty when I was driving back home, again I had uncomfortable emotions which I wasn’t able to understand.

In the dim road and moonlight, it seems that that something flying in front of the car. I knew that there was nothing but my confused mind. Hopelessness was prevailing all around me.

As it was hot summer so car A/C was on. After about 10 minutes drive, I began to shiver.

I slowed down and stop, turned off A/C but still, I was shivering.

Once I thought to take help from highway police but changed my mind in the next moment as my home was now just a mile away.

I took rest for a while, drank water, and drove again.

I had to take the exit a few meters from where I stopped. When I moved on and took the exit, I had a narrow escape because I was about to hit the road’s sidewall.

I realized that my reflexes were slow and I took a longer turn.

I was traveling on that road daily for about 3 years and was very familiar with that road.

What’s wrong with me? I asked myself!

But I had no clear answer.

Thank God I reached home safely

On the very next day, I was tested positive for COVID-19. I was upset when I received the test result. I made a mistake somewhere that’s why the coronavirus was able to enter my body.

As COVID-19 was on peak, so everyone was afraid of catching the Coronavirus. But at the same time, most people were also in denial.

I was also mentally prepared as I was among those who were on the front line.

So chances were always there. The other family members were tested negative for COVID-19. This gave me a big relief.

After diagnosis, I quarantined myself at home.

Sorrow was high for many reasons, most importantly, I prevented my little sweet daughter to hug and kiss me which she usually does on my arrival at home.

That night I took a very light dinner and went to bed but sleep was far away.

After a while, I began to feel nausea and a few minutes later, diarrhea started.

I was very upset and felt lonely. My mind wasn’t with me.

I had a strange feeling which I still couldn’t explain here. I was somewhere between earth and sky….not alive or dead.

In the morning I could hear my kids but wasn’t able to meet them.

Tears were in my eyes after a long time in my life.

I had breakfast with little taste and smell. Diarrhea was bothering me very much.

Surprisingly I didn’t have severe respiratory symptoms except for a moderate cough. However, I had a fever throughout my ailment.

My family was very supportive in that situation. I tried very best to remain positive and calm. That was very essential and I used to advise my patients, but now I was a patient.

Every night was fearful. I was afraid of sleeping because of nightmares, loneliness bothersome diarrhea, cough, and fever.

I took the supportive treatment as there was no proper treatment, so I have to encourage myself.

“Nothing will happen bad to me and will get well soon”

These were the words that I always uttered.

Sometimes I asked myself,

“Am I in denial?

But the next moment I thought positively because I had seen many patients recovered from COVID-19.

As I mentioned that it was summer, so I had to keep changing the air conditioner to a comfortable temperature at night.

Generally, most of the time, I felt cold and had to use a blanket even at a temperature of 40 °C. Some time blanket seemed to be not enough.

I always remained in disturbed sleep. My days were slightly better as I had some activities but nights were horrible. I tried sleeping pills occasionally but failed. Some bizarre images and voices were disturbing me during sleep.

The continuous disturbance in sleep made me more tired and ill.

During partial sleep, the faces of my young kids encouraged me to beat the disease as they were saying.

“We can’t live without you, daddy. You have to live with us. Beat it. We want to play with you.”

That horrifying condition remained for a week or so, but I was determined to fight with disease and also wanted to defeat it anyhow.

Afterward, every next day was better, things began to improve and fever began to subside.

After two and a half weeks, my symptoms subsided. I was feeling much better except weaknesses.

After a few more days, when I was declared “clear” and I met with the family with care. That was an amazing day. It looked that I was born aging. That was true as I got a new life again.

I was able to hug my sweet daughter, play with my children, and live with my wife.

Sometimes when I remember those days, it looks like a dream or a horror film scene.

Again I’m on my duty and joined my happy family and living a normal life.

I wish from the bottom of my heart that nobody will have COVID-19, as he/she has to remain away from their loved one and has to face the medical consequences of the disease.

I also request everyone to follow SOPs for COVID-19 while doing your daily activities along with ALL preventive measures and always remember;

Wear a mask

Clean hands frequently

Keep a safe distance



Since your childhood, you must have heard a saying that

“Health is wealth”

Do you agree? I think you will be agreed! Good health is an aspiration for everyone. Each of us wants to live in a broad health horizon where he/she can fly like a free happy bird and can see a beautiful happy world with a birds-eye view.

To live happy and healthy you must have to do and not do something. However, to be remaining consistent with activities which can improve your health like exercise is a bit difficult but not impossible. No doubt the uncertainty of your daily life hinders your task but once you overcome them, then nobody can stop you from being healthy and well-being.              

Your task should be to promote healthy behavior and self-management of lifestyle. In this, we’ll discuss some important issues which are very important for your well-being. By changing your lifestyle, many diseases are preventable, which otherwise cause a lot of negative consequences.

There are a lot of optimal and foremost treatment options for non-communicable diseases that are related to lifestyle, but we don’t pay much attention to them, and thus they become chronic. Plants-oriented diet, physical and emotional well-being, and avoidance of hazardous substances are some interventions to prevent or even reverse some deadly diseases. You have to do the following few things to live healthily.

#1 Do Physical activities

Mabel Amber

The lack of physical activities can result in obesity, heart diseases, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and many other diseases. (1)

Due to your job or studies, it becomes difficult to take time for your physical activities, but 40-50 minutes is still not impossible even if you have a busy schedule. Physical activities may include but are not limited to walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, dancing, hiking playing games, etc. There is evidence that even 30 minutes of moderate exercise has beneficial health effects. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends 150-300 minutes /week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activities for the aged 18-64. (2)

So you must spare a few minutes from your busy life for your health. Exercise makes you physically and psychologically fit. It increases your endurance and makes almost all your body functions perfect.

#2 Review your eating habits

Jasmine Lin

One of the reasons for the increase in diseases is a poor or unhealthy diet. There is an imbalance of food intake in various parts of the world. In western countries, there is a trend of consuming more meat, sugar beverage, and dairy products whereas in underdeveloped there is inadequate food. Your diet must be a combination of products which makes your body and needed for proper functions. You should take healthy fat (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated), protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals. You don’t need to take extra pills of vitamins or minerals if you’re eating well.

Your diet should base more on plant sources rather than animal sources. As for a healthy diet is concerned, there is a long list of healthy foods but in general, eat more vegetables, fruits, whole grain, low or fat-free milk, lean meat, fish, poultry, beans, nuts, etc. You should also remain within your calorie requirements, which have great importance. (3)

#3 Sleep well

Good sleep is very important for our health. It is not only good for our physical but also for mental and psychological health. Good sleep helps us to recover from physical and mental exertion. (4)

Ivan Oboleninov

So for a healthy life, sleep is very important. Good sleep improves the performance of our various body systems. For example, it makes your heart healthy, makes the immune system better, reduces stress, decreases inflammation, helps in the improvement of memory, reduces stress, or even decreases the chances of cancer.

If you have lack of sleep, you should follow the following techniques;

  1. Make a strict sleeping timetable: this means that you should go to sleep and wake up at a fixed time, you are out of town or are on holiday.
  2. Do some exercise: if you don’t have proper sleep before sleep, do some exercise before sleep. This may help to achieve sleep when you are on your bed.
  3. Avoid bright light and electronic devices. Your cell phone should also be silent.
  4. Use a comfortable pillow and mattress.
  5. Your bedroom should be also comfortable. Your bedroom should be away from a noisy environment, like it should be away from the roadside. Use dim light in your room. The temperature of the bedroom should be comfortable for you.
  6. Avoid stress and anxiety at bedtime. Do some relaxing techniques like yoga or read a book.
  7.  Don’t sleep on daytime if you have lack of sleep at bedtime.
  8. Don’t take coffee, tea, or drinks having caffeine.
  9. Avoid alcohol or heavy dinner.
  10.  You can also take a shower before sleep which may induce sleep.
  11. If you have a long sleeping problem, then should contact your healthcare provider.

#4 Avoid stress

Stress may have bad effects on your physical health, psychological health, and on your behavior so stress is not good for your health. (5)

Inzmam Khan 

Stress produces a lot of changes in the body. It produces harmful stress hormones (fight -or- flight), disturbs the immune system, consumes more energy. The long-standing stress may cause a long list of diseases.

Management of stress

  • Do exercises on a regular basis.
  • Do relax techniques like massage, yoga, deep breathing
  • Read some interesting books
  • Don’t live alone
  • Listen to music
  • Visit your friends
  • Avoid excessive use of devices like cell phone, TV
  • Have some time for spiritual activities

#5 Take adequate water


Water is an integral part of your body. Drinking adequate water every day is very important to your health. (6)

The adult human body consists of approximately 60% of water, this indicates how important water is. Water is used in all parts of your body to maintain its functions. It is necessary to eliminate waste products from your body, maintain your body temperature, and your skin intact and beautiful.

Water is lost in various ways like urine, respiration, and sweating, so you must replenish water to maintain good health. Now the question is how much water is needed every day. There are many factors that determine how much water you should take. The factors which determine water intake are ;

  • Temperature
  • Physical activities
  • Body size
  • Pregnancy and lactation in women
  • Health issues like diarrhea vomiting etc

On average an adult man should take 3.7 liters (about 15.5 cups) and a woman about 2.7(11.5 cups) of water daily. (7) 

To bear in mind, remember a famous saying,

“Take 8 glasses of water every day”

Again, keep in mind that water intake depends on many environmental and individual health conditions.

#6 Quit smoking

Aphiwat chuangchoem

Smoking which is preventable is a major cause of death in the United States and also all around the globe. (8)

On every cigarette pack, you may have seen a warning that;

“Smoking is injurious to health”

So smoking must be avoided if you want to live longer.

Everyone knows that smoking is just suicide. So knowing the facts and ignoring the warning, has no justification. Smoking can damage almost all systems of the body and some of them include (9);

  • Lungs: your lungs are very much affected by tobacco smoke, ranging from mild to very dangerous diseases like emphysema, pneumonia, and lung cancer.
  • Heart & circulation: smoking may damage your heart and circulation, resulting in heart attack and many related diseases.
  • Mouth and throat: smoking can cause mouth lips, tongue, and throat cancers
  • Stomach: you may have an increased likelihood of ulcers and stomach cancers
  • Skin: some toxins are produced due to smoking, which can damage and change the color of your skin.
  • Kidneys: kidney and bladder problem may arise
  • Bones diseases
  • Reproduction & sexual problems

#7 Cut back Alcohol

Alcohol is also should be limited or completely avoided if possible. Alcohol is a toxic and psychoactive substance with dependence-producing properties. (11)

Excessive or chronic use of alcohol may result in many diseases, some of which are fatal. Alcohol may cause liver failure and cancer, digestive problems, breast cancer, colon cancer, mouth cancer, heart diseases, psychological problems, stroke, social problems, addiction, and numerous health issues. So for a healthy life, you must avoid Alcohol.

Act now

So what are you waiting for? Set your goal, spare time for yourself, and start your activities now.

Kegel exercises

Kegel Exercises & Women Health

Kegel Exercises


Kegel exercise or pelvic floor exercise gives strength to your pelvic muscles. It consists of alternative contraction and relaxation of pelvic floor muscles. The pelvic acts as a muscles support for pelvic organs like the uterus and vagina in females, small intestine, bladder, and rectum. The weakening of pelvic muscles may result in many problems such as urinary stress incontinence and prolapse of the uterus, vagina, intestine, and rectum. It can also decrease sexual sensation.

In 1948, Arnold Kegel, an American gynecologist, invented these exercises.

Kegel exercises can be performed for a few minutes, several times a day, by repeatedly contracting and relaxation of pelvic floor muscles.

How to recognize pelvic muscles

Before starting this exercise, you must know the pelvic floor muscles, otherwise, you’ll not get a good result.

You can recognize them easily in the following ways.

1- Suppose you are in a car and there is a need to pass out urine, but you are a few minutes away from the bathroom. At this time you attempt to prevent urine by contracting some muscles which are pelvic floor muscles.

2- Similarly, when you prevent passing out gas, then you also contract the same muscles.

3- You can also become familiar with these muscles by placing your finger into the vagina or anus and try to press your finger, again you’ll use pelvic floor muscle to do this.

4- When you are urinating and stop the urine in midway, again you contract pelvic floor muscle. But remember, should not do this because it’ll harm you instead of giving benefits.

5- These are the same muscles that contract when you get your orgasm.

Why pelvic muscles become weak.

Many factors weaken pelvic muscles and some of them include;

  1. Obesity
  2. Pregnancy
  3. Childbirth
  4. Surgical procedures
  5. Prolonged constipation
  6. Chronic cough
  7. Advanced age

Health benefits of Kegel exercise

There are many benefits of Kegel exercise, some of them already mentioned above. Let summarize them again here.

These exercises aim is to give strength to the pelvic floor.  There are many beneficial effects of these exercises as mentioned below;

Incontinence prevention

Pelvic floor exercise may help to control urine and fecal incontinence due to the weakening of the pelvic floor and thus solving your problems. But if you have severe incontinence, then you must consult your doctor or healthcare providers.

Prolapse prevention

Making a stronger pelvic floor may help to prevent prolapse of the various organs like the uterus, vagina, rectum, urinary bladder, etc.

Facilitate pregnancy

The Kegel exercise is prescribed in pregnancy to strengthen the pelvic floor when it has to bear the stress in the later stages of pregnancy and during childbirth. Such exercises make delivery easier. Kegel is also recommended after delivery to strengthen pelvic floor muscles and vagina, which suffer physical stress during the process of delivery.

Sexual enhancement

These exercises may tighten your vagina. They increase pleasure in your sexual activity by increasing blood flow and sensation to the vagina and make it relax during sexual intercourse. It may also allow the female to complete pompoir (a kind of sexual activity). During orgasm, these are the muscle that contract and if they are stronger, they give better pleasure.

When to perform Kegel exercise

You are free in this regard. Whenever you have time, you can go for it. You can do it any time during the day while watching TV, sitting in your garden, relaxing on a chair, or lying on your bed.

How to do Kegel exercises

You can do it by sitting or lying position. It is better to perform lying down on the floor on your back. You can also do turning to the right or left while lying down. Once you become an expert, you can do it at any position and increase contraction time.

Remember “squeeze and relax” and “5”.

Before exercise, empty your bladder. Lay down on the floor, pay attention to your pelvic muscle. Breathe deeply and relax while doing exercise. Squeeze pelvic muscles for 5 seconds and then relax for 5-10 seconds. However, you can take berating during squeezing if required. Then repeat the procedure. In this way, you can do 10 sets in a row, 4-5 times a day at different times. Please do not contract your abdominal, hip, or thigh muscles while doing Kegel exercise. You’ll get good results in a few weeks or a month.

The Best position for doing Kegel

There are no fixed positions to do such exercise but remember that your body should be in a comfortable position.

The best positions for exercise are;


Gustavo Fring

This is quite an easy exercise. Sit on a chair or exercise ball with feet on the ground. Inhale deeply and contract your pelvic muscles. Hold the contraction for few seconds then exhale and relax the pelvis.


Lay on your back with your knee bent upward. Your fingertips should be near to your heels. Relax your muscles completely and breathe out. Inhale deeply and left your hip making bridge and contract pelvis muscles and exhale. Remain in contracting for few seconds and then relax the pelvic muscle. Afterward, slowly lower down your hip to the floor. In this way, repeat it 5-10 times


Put your hands and knees on the floor under your shoulders. take a deep breath and take a pose of Cat by pushing your pelvis forward and bending the spine and then exhale and relax your muscles. repeat the process for 10 times.


Lie down prone on the mat. Stretch the legs back with the tops of the facing floor. Hold your hands on the floor under your shoulders. Drawback the elbows towards your body.

Firmly press your feet, thighs, and pubis towards the floor

Take a deep breath and begin strengthening your arms to lift the chest until you reach a height where you can still maintain the connection with the floor with your pubis as well as with your legs. In this position draw tailbone toward pubis making shore not to tighten hip.

Compressed the shoulder blades against the back, moving the side ribs frontward. Raise your chest by the top of your sternum avoiding pushing the front ribs forward. Maintain the backbend equally.

Keep this posture for 15-20 seconds, keep breathing evenly. With the exhalation, let go your back to the floor.


The clamshells not only make your pelvic stronger but also strengthen thigh, hips, and glutes muscles.

To start, lay on your side with your head laid on your base arm and your top arm’s hand on the floor to adjust. Your knees ought to be twisted at 45 degrees. Then, connect with your abs and press your pelvic floor up and in towards your spine. As you keep your feet together, separate your knees and open your top knee like a clamshell. Once at the top, hold for a couple of moments and afterward on your breathe out, gradually return to the beginning position.


Lie down on the floor with face up with bending knees with arms along the body and feet flat. By squeezing your glutes and hamstrings, lift hips from the floor by keeping the pelvic floor fit into place as your hips rise. Then Lower down the hips and repeat about 10 times.


Lie down on your back on the floor. bend your knees in such a way that as they are going to touch your chest. Pull your right knee towards your chest,  making sure that your head and shoulders are relaxed on the mat.

wrap up your both hands around the knee and try to hug it towards your chest.

Keep it here for 30 – 60 seconds.

Relax and move back to the floor r and repeat the same procedure with the left knee.

Then bend both knees upward and put y your both arms around them.

Again, try to Hug your knees in towards your chest.

Keep this stretching for 30 – 60 seconds.

Move your legs down to the floor and relax.





Note: Kegel exercises are quite safe, but if you feel pain during contractions, then consult your health care provider.

The author wishes you for your better health.


1-What is medical education?

It is aimed toward doctors of all levels and other healthcare workers who have a teaching role in all medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, physiotherapy, midwifery and plenty of many other health professionals seeking to develop their knowledge and skills with in the theory and practice of teaching and learning. It may also be of interest to others who wish to develop their knowledge of education and training issues within the context of medicine and healthcare e.g. healthcare managers and educational developers.

Any program in medical education should have a clear emphasis on the development of medical educator and educational leadership skills and affords opportunities to explore inter-professional, inter-disciplinary and disciplinary specific aspects of education and training.
The education and training in medicine, health and social care have undergone significant reform in the past decade, creating new challenges and opportunities for those with educational roles and responsibilities

Learning outcomes of medical educators

All the following learning should be outcomes;

Knowledge and theory:

  • Critically explore theories and strategies of learning, teaching and assessment relevant to their practice
  • Examine their own personal philosophy of learning
  • Critically analyze their professional interaction on a one-to-one, small and large group basis
  • Be critically aware of developments nationally and internationally in medical education and the implications of these developments for course design

Intellectual skills:

  • Demonstrate their evolving philosophy of communication in medical education
  • Explore the similarities and differences between patient and learner centred values and practice
  • Identify their own needs for further development as medical educators

Professional/practical skills:

  • Critically assess their interpersonal skills in their practice
  • Demonstrate appropriate skills of facilitating learning and supporting an effective learning environment
  • Critically reflect on their facilitative styles
  • Develop self awareness and self evaluation in their professional and educational roles

2-What is the purpose, aims and objective of medical education?

It aims to prepare students for a role in undergraduate and postgraduate clinical and healthcare education as teacher and trainer, according to the best clinical and educational standards.

To achieve this, students may study the basic sciences to education, behavior and clinical entity.

They should also acquire an understanding of the theoretical basis of learning and teaching and the practical application of these skills.

They should also gain knowledge and practical application of the technology required for efficient and innovative teaching.

Students should be assisted in the gaining familiarity by the practical design and development of teaching and inquest techniques during studies.

The Overall aims

  • recognize and foster a learner-centered approach
  • relate this to the requirements of medical education for clinical competence
  • develop practical, generic skills in teaching and assessment by understanding of educational theory
  • endorse rational practice in education and clinical practice, using a work-based reflective journal and teaching observation
  • promote evidence-based education
  • achieve recognized accreditation
  • Gain an overview of the importance of communication in professional practice and medical education
  • look at the philosophy and values of patient/learner centered education and practice
  • assist medical education bridging the boundaries between undergraduate and postgraduate provision, primary and secondary care, and health professionals
  • make possible of learning in both academic and practice settings
  • uphold the development of pertinent communication skills
  • build up and augment teaching skills

3- The contents of the Medical Education.

The medical education may have following modules

Curriculum development

This may include:

  • introduction to curriculum and course blueprint
  • course outline, core curriculum, electives and selection
  • outcome-based education
  • preference and ideology of curriculum development
  • Approaches to curriculum development
  • aspire, objectives and competencies
  • Problem-based learning
  • Community based medical education
  • incorporated teaching
  • Educational milieu
  • Multi specialized education
  • Quality assurance

Teaching and Learning

In this candidate should gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an successful and approachable medical teacher and also the research, theory and practice of teaching and learning.

Teaching and learning may consists of a combination of presentations, activities and structured discussions using active learning methods and participants should be expected to illustrate  their own knowledge, skills and experiences of teaching and to reflect critically on their underlying postulations. The teaching and learning should include the following;

  • Lectures
  • entire group discussions
  • Small group discussions
  • Videos
  • Problem based, outcome orientated process of feedback
  • performer and task
  • Observation of others teaching
  • presentation
  • Seminars
  • Peer review instructions
  • Development of Portfolio

Learning and Assessment

It should consist of introduction to examination impression, principle and approaches to assessment and measurement of skilled performance.

It examines in the background of research, practical knowledge, thoughtful practice, organizational culture and current professional assessment policy, and the interaction between all these. This also includes organizational and individual requirements and constructing quality improvement methods. This may include;

  • styles in assessment
  • ideology of assessment
  • Assessment techniques
  • Own assessment in the teaching process
  • skilled assessment
  • Assessing approach
  • feedback

long-term Personal and Professional improvement

It gives an introduction to and assessment of concepts, purposes, and approaches and look into in the context of research on personal practical knowledge, reflective practice, organizational culture and educational policy. This also include discussion between individual and organizational development, professional liability and teaching excellence

This study the interpersonal skills and understanding required by those involved in healthcare education both as learners and contributors.

Information technology in  Education

There is need to use of information and latest digital technology methods in medical education in teaching and research data assessment. Video conferencing, telemedicine and simulation may be used as tools in medical education.

Problem Based Learning in Medical education

In this, students explore the theory, practice and development of problem based learning. They l learn how to design and run problem based learning sessions related to the health sciences. This includes observation of actual sessions and they also undertake facilitation of sessions themselves which is appraised.

There may be a relevant review of the scientific literature supporting the concept of problem based learning and a review of the research into its efficacy.

Teaching practical clinical skills and usingclinical simulators.

This module builds on the theory and practice of skills teaching and training introduced in the core module, Teaching and Learning.

The Participants should learn the theories underlying skills teaching plus additional frameworks used in elective situations such as physical examinations, surgery and investigational procedures,   practice and evaluate a variety of skill teaching and testing techniques and learn how to deliver simulation training by designing, running and evaluating a simulation scenario.

Action enquiry

This module deals with the issues surrounding the planning of an enquiry, carrying it out and producing an account of the experience.

The purpose is to prepare students to undertake practical investigations which will enable them to enhance research skills and to work as critical investigators in their own work place. The nature of quantitative and qualitative research at a

Philosophical level is looked at.

By the end of the module student have a greatly enhanced understanding of the strength and weakness of research based on each methodology -very useful in this era of evidence based care.

Dissertation/project and research

The medical education project module provides the opportunity to develop interests and expertise in a chosen area of medical education research, development or leadership.

It enables students to: identify an area of research/development/leadership interest that merits research/development activity; plan, design, manage and evaluate a small scale project and demonstrate innovation in medical education and /or leadership. Research may have;*

  • Research awareness
  • Approaches to research
  • Sampling
  • Designing and administering questionnaires
  • Interpretation and presentation of data

4-Who can take medical education?

Participants may include:

  • junior teachers wishing to improve their skills;
  • senior teachers keeping up-to-date;
  • clinical tutors, trainers or course organizers responsible for arranging programs for their own participants;
  • staff serving on curriculum or course committees, curriculum facilitators and administrators;
  • individuals given new teaching responsibilities;
  • All those who are interested in improving the practice of medical education.

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