MEDICAL EDUCATION

1-What is medical education?

It is aimed toward doctors of all levels and other healthcare workers who have a teaching role in all medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, physiotherapy, midwifery and plenty of many other health professionals seeking to develop their knowledge and skills with in the theory and practice of teaching and learning. It may also be of interest to others who wish to develop their knowledge of education and training issues within the context of medicine and healthcare e.g. healthcare managers and educational developers.

Any program in medical education should have a clear emphasis on the development of medical educator and educational leadership skills and affords opportunities to explore inter-professional, inter-disciplinary and disciplinary specific aspects of education and training.
The education and training in medicine, health and social care have undergone significant reform in the past decade, creating new challenges and opportunities for those with educational roles and responsibilities

Learning outcomes of medical educators

All the following learning should be outcomes;

Knowledge and theory:

  • Critically explore theories and strategies of learning, teaching and assessment relevant to their practice
  • Examine their own personal philosophy of learning
  • Critically analyze their professional interaction on a one-to-one, small and large group basis
  • Be critically aware of developments nationally and internationally in medical education and the implications of these developments for course design

Intellectual skills:

  • Demonstrate their evolving philosophy of communication in medical education
  • Explore the similarities and differences between patient and learner centred values and practice
  • Identify their own needs for further development as medical educators

Professional/practical skills:

  • Critically assess their interpersonal skills in their practice
  • Demonstrate appropriate skills of facilitating learning and supporting an effective learning environment
  • Critically reflect on their facilitative styles
  • Develop self awareness and self evaluation in their professional and educational roles

2-What is the purpose, aims and objective of medical education?

It aims to prepare students for a role in undergraduate and postgraduate clinical and healthcare education as teacher and trainer, according to the best clinical and educational standards.

To achieve this, students may study the basic sciences to education, behavior and clinical entity.

They should also acquire an understanding of the theoretical basis of learning and teaching and the practical application of these skills.

They should also gain knowledge and practical application of the technology required for efficient and innovative teaching.

Students should be assisted in the gaining familiarity by the practical design and development of teaching and inquest techniques during studies.

The Overall aims

  • recognize and foster a learner-centered approach
  • relate this to the requirements of medical education for clinical competence
  • develop practical, generic skills in teaching and assessment by understanding of educational theory
  • endorse rational practice in education and clinical practice, using a work-based reflective journal and teaching observation
  • promote evidence-based education
  • achieve recognized accreditation
  • Gain an overview of the importance of communication in professional practice and medical education
  • look at the philosophy and values of patient/learner centered education and practice
  • assist medical education bridging the boundaries between undergraduate and postgraduate provision, primary and secondary care, and health professionals
  • make possible of learning in both academic and practice settings
  • uphold the development of pertinent communication skills
  • build up and augment teaching skills

3- The contents of the Medical Education.

The medical education may have following modules

Curriculum development

This may include:

  • introduction to curriculum and course blueprint
  • course outline, core curriculum, electives and selection
  • outcome-based education
  • preference and ideology of curriculum development
  • Approaches to curriculum development
  • aspire, objectives and competencies
  • Problem-based learning
  • Community based medical education
  • incorporated teaching
  • Educational milieu
  • Multi specialized education
  • Quality assurance

Teaching and Learning

In this candidate should gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an successful and approachable medical teacher and also the research, theory and practice of teaching and learning.

Teaching and learning may consists of a combination of presentations, activities and structured discussions using active learning methods and participants should be expected to illustrate  their own knowledge, skills and experiences of teaching and to reflect critically on their underlying postulations. The teaching and learning should include the following;

  • Lectures
  • entire group discussions
  • Small group discussions
  • Videos
  • Problem based, outcome orientated process of feedback
  • performer and task
  • Observation of others teaching
  • presentation
  • Seminars
  • Peer review instructions
  • Development of Portfolio

Learning and Assessment

It should consist of introduction to examination impression, principle and approaches to assessment and measurement of skilled performance.

It examines in the background of research, practical knowledge, thoughtful practice, organizational culture and current professional assessment policy, and the interaction between all these. This also includes organizational and individual requirements and constructing quality improvement methods. This may include;

  • styles in assessment
  • ideology of assessment
  • Assessment techniques
  • Own assessment in the teaching process
  • skilled assessment
  • Assessing approach
  • feedback

long-term Personal and Professional improvement

It gives an introduction to and assessment of concepts, purposes, and approaches and look into in the context of research on personal practical knowledge, reflective practice, organizational culture and educational policy. This also include discussion between individual and organizational development, professional liability and teaching excellence

This study the interpersonal skills and understanding required by those involved in healthcare education both as learners and contributors.

Information technology in  Education

There is need to use of information and latest digital technology methods in medical education in teaching and research data assessment. Video conferencing, telemedicine and simulation may be used as tools in medical education.

Problem Based Learning in Medical education

In this, students explore the theory, practice and development of problem based learning. They l learn how to design and run problem based learning sessions related to the health sciences. This includes observation of actual sessions and they also undertake facilitation of sessions themselves which is appraised.

There may be a relevant review of the scientific literature supporting the concept of problem based learning and a review of the research into its efficacy.

Teaching practical clinical skills and usingclinical simulators.

This module builds on the theory and practice of skills teaching and training introduced in the core module, Teaching and Learning.

The Participants should learn the theories underlying skills teaching plus additional frameworks used in elective situations such as physical examinations, surgery and investigational procedures,   practice and evaluate a variety of skill teaching and testing techniques and learn how to deliver simulation training by designing, running and evaluating a simulation scenario.

Action enquiry

This module deals with the issues surrounding the planning of an enquiry, carrying it out and producing an account of the experience.

The purpose is to prepare students to undertake practical investigations which will enable them to enhance research skills and to work as critical investigators in their own work place. The nature of quantitative and qualitative research at a

Philosophical level is looked at.

By the end of the module student have a greatly enhanced understanding of the strength and weakness of research based on each methodology -very useful in this era of evidence based care.

Dissertation/project and research

The medical education project module provides the opportunity to develop interests and expertise in a chosen area of medical education research, development or leadership.

It enables students to: identify an area of research/development/leadership interest that merits research/development activity; plan, design, manage and evaluate a small scale project and demonstrate innovation in medical education and /or leadership. Research may have;*

  • Research awareness
  • Approaches to research
  • Sampling
  • Designing and administering questionnaires
  • Interpretation and presentation of data

4-Who can take medical education?

Participants may include:

  • junior teachers wishing to improve their skills;
  • senior teachers keeping up-to-date;
  • clinical tutors, trainers or course organizers responsible for arranging programs for their own participants;
  • staff serving on curriculum or course committees, curriculum facilitators and administrators;
  • individuals given new teaching responsibilities;
  • All those who are interested in improving the practice of medical education.